AethalometerModel AE33Aethalometer Model AE33User ManualVersion 1.54March 2016Aerosol d.o.o., Ljubljana, SloveniaUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20161/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20162/158

AethalometerModel AE33Aethalometer Model AE33 ManualVersion 1.54, March 2016Applicable for AE33-Software ver. 2012-2016 Aerosol d.o.o. Magee Scientific Aethalometer Manual. All Rights Reserved.Licensed OEM distributors may use the contents of this manual with their own names,trademarks and logos for branding purposes for the distribution of Aethalometer instruments, but may not modify the text without the prior written permission of Aerosol d.o.o.,and must include the copyright notice in italics above on all copies.Aerosol d.o.o.Kamniška 41SI-1000 LjubljanaSlovenia, EUtel: 386 1 4391 700fax: 386 59 191 221www.aerosol.euwww.magescientific.comUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20163/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20164/158

AethalometerModel AE33TABLE OF CONTENTS1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION . 112. SAFETY NOTES AND LABELS . 153. WARRANTY . 214. PACKING LIST . 255INTRODUCTION . 295.1 Basic calculations . 305.2 Functional description of the instrument . 325.3 Flow Diagram . 386. IDENTIFICATION AND MARKINGS. 416.1 Instrument identification label . 416.2 Front panel markings . 416.3 Back panel markings . 427. INSTRUMENT INSTALLATION . 457.1 Unpacking the system . 457.2 Attaching the air sample inlet line. 457.3 Switching the Aethalometer on . 477.4 Installation of the instrument in a measurement station . 498. USER INTERFACE, SETTINGS and OPERATION . 558.1 User interface and settings . 558.2 Instrument Status . 629. MAINTENANCE . 699.1 Cleaning The Optical Chamber . 709.2 Replacement of the Filter Tape Roll . 739.3 Manual flow calibration . 769.4 Leakage test . 799.5 Stability test . 829.6 Clean Air test . 84User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20165/158

AethalometerModel AE339.7 Automatic Clean Air Test . 869.8 Tape Sensor calibration . 869.9 Flow verification . 879.10 ND Optical Filter test . 909.11 Inlet Leakage test . 929.12 Lubrication of Optical Chamber Sliders . 9310. SERIAL DATA PORT CONNECTIONS . 9910.1 External devices . 10110.1.1 AMES TPR159 . 10210.1.2 Comet T0310 . 10210.1.3 Vaisala GMP343 . 10210.1.4 TSI 4100 . 10210.1.5 Datalogger AE33 protocol . 10210.1.6 Sample Stream Dryer . 10210.1.7 “Bayern Hessen” datalogger protocol . 10210.1.8 Datalogger Qair protocol . 10410.1.9 AE33 data streaming . 10610.2 Connecting to External Datalogger or PC . 10611. DATA MANAGEMENT . 10911.1 Exporting the Data . 10911.2 System restore . 11311.3 Basic settings . 11311.4 BC source apportionment . 11412. SOFTWARE UPGRADE . 11913. TROUBLESHOOTING. 12313.1 Startup screen checks . 12313.2 Instrument status . 12413.3 Unacceptable quality control test results . 12513.4 Other issues . 125User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20166/158

AethalometerModel AE3314. SPECIFICATION . 12915. ACCESORIES . 13016. DRAWINGS . 13517. THEORY OF OPERATION . 14118. CONFORMITY DOCUMENTS . 15119. CUSTOMER SERVICE . 15520. RETURNS FOR SERVICE. 156User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20167/158

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AethalometerModel AE33CHAPTERGENERAL INTRODUCTIONUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 20169/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201610/158

AethalometerModel AE331. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONFigure 1. The Aethalometer Model AE33.Magee Scientific and Aerosol are pleased to present the ‘Next Generation’ Aethalometer ,Model AE33. This development incorporates scientific and technical advances which offerimproved measurement performance, user features, communications and interface, and theability to perform routine performance tests to verify correct operation. Most importantly, theinstrument incorporates the patented DualSpot measurement method. This provides twosignificant advantages: elimination of the changes in response due to ‘aerosol loading’ effects;and a real-time calculation of the ‘loading compensation’ parameter, which offers insights intoaerosol optical properties, and has been interpreted in models of aerosol origins and aging.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201611/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201612/158

AethalometerModel AE33CHAPTERSAFETY NOTES AND LABELSUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201613/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201614/158

AethalometerModel AE332. SAFETY NOTES AND LABELSCAUTION!READ THIS CHAPTER VERY CAREFULLY BEFORE OPERATING THEINSTRUMENT.Instrument operationRead this User’s Manual BEFORE operating the instrument.INCORRECT instrument operation can be DANGEROUS for the operator.Unauthorized instrument access and operationThe instrument must not be used in any manner which contravenes this Manual.Unauthorized internal access or incorrect operation can be dangerous. Theinstrument must only be operated by persons with suitable technical skills andpractical experience, who can ensure its proper handling and use.Electric shockCHECK the A.C. mains power supply cord ANNUALLY. If the supply cable isDAMAGED or FRAYED, contact your authorized representative immediately for areplacement and do not use the instrument until the cord is replaced.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201615/158

AethalometerModel AE33Fire and explosionNEVER install the instrument in explosion-risk areas and never use the equipmentnear flammable substances.Instrument overheatingALWAYS provide adequate ventilation. NEVER install the instrument in spaceswith limited air circulation.UV radiationThe AE33 light source contains ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs).These LEDs radiate UV and visible light during operation. Precautions must betaken to prevent looking directly at the UV light with unaided eyes. NEVER touchor look directly into the AE33 light source!User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201616/158

AethalometerModel AE33Instrument service and repairUNAUTHORISED instrument service and repair procedures will VOID THEWARRANTY. The instrument can only be serviced by authorized persons. Pleasecontact your authorized representative if you have any service questions orrequirementsUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201617/158

AethalometerModel AE33Moving partsDuring AUTOMATIC tape advance procedure, the measurement chamber is liftedby a motorized lift mechanism. To prevent any injuries to your fingers, NEVERplace your hands or fingers into ANY mechanical apertures, during automatic tapeadvance procedure.During MANUAL chamber lift procedure ALWAYS use the chamber lift lockinglatch. To prevent any injuries to your hands or fingers, NEVER place your handsor fingers into ANY mechanical apertures. Exercise caution when lifting andreleasing the chamber against its springs.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201618/158

AethalometerModel AE33CHAPTERWARRANTYUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201619/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201620/158

AethalometerModel AE333. WARRANTYLimited warranty statement: AETHALOMETERVers., (Seller), warrants that the Products will operate or perform in conformance withSeller's published specifications and be free from defects in material and workmanship, whensubjected to normal, proper and intended usage by properly trained personnel, for the periodof time set forth in the product documentation, published specifications or package inserts. Ifa period of time is not specified in Seller’s product documentation, published specifications orpackage inserts, the Warranty Period shall be one (1) year from the date of shipment to Buyerfor new equipment and ninety (90) days for all other products except consumables. Selleragrees during the Warranty Period, to repair or replace, at Seller's option, defective Productsso as to cause the same to operate in conformance with said published specifications; providedthat (a) Buyer shall promptly notify Seller in writing upon the discovery of any defect, whichnotice shall include the product model and serial number (if applicable) and details of thewarranty claim; (b) after Seller’s review, Seller will provide Buyer with service data and/or aReturn Material Authorization (“RMA”); and (c) then, if applicable, Buyer may return thedefective Products to Seller with all costs prepaid by Buyer. Replacement parts may be new orrefurbished, at the election of Seller. All replaced parts shall become the property of Seller.Shipment to Buyer of repaired or replacement Products shall be made in accordance with theDelivery provisions of the Seller’s Terms and Conditions of Sale. Consumables, including butnot limited to filter tape, filters, and other such expendable items, are expressly excluded fromthe warranty. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Products supplied by Seller that are obtained bySeller from an original manufacturer or third party supplier are not warranted by Seller, butSeller agrees to assign to Buyer any warranty rights in such Product that Seller may have fromthe original manufacturer or third party supplier, to the extent such assignment is allowed bysuch original manufacturer or third party supplier.In no event shall Seller have any obligation to make repairs, replacements or correctionsrequired, in whole or in part, as the result of (i) normal wear and tear, (ii) accident, disaster orUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201621/158

AethalometerModel AE33event of force majeure, (iii) misuse, fault or negligence of or by Buyer, (iv) use of the Productsin a manner for which they were not designed, (v) causes external to the Products such as, butnot limited to, power failure or electrical power surges, (vi) improper storage and handling ofthe Products or (vii) use of the Products in combination with equipment or software notsupplied by Seller. Specifically, this Warranty does not cover repairs of the Products that arerequired as the result of (viii) exposure to weather or rain, or the passage of water through theProduct’s air sampling and handling systems, (ix) exposure to excessive dust, (x)transportation in improper packaging and (xi) damage due to internal condensation of water,if the Product is sampling outdoor air with a very high humidity, and the Product is in a roomwith excessively cold air-conditioning with a temperature below the condensation point of theoutdoor sample air, leading to condensing of water inside the Product.If Seller determines that Products for which Buyer has requested warranty services are notcovered by the warranty hereunder, Buyer shall pay or reimburse Seller for all costs ofinvestigating and responding to such request at Seller's then prevailing time and materialsrates. If Seller provides repair services or replacement parts that are not covered by thewarranty provided in this warranty, Buyer shall pay Seller therefor at Seller's then prevailingtime and materials rates.ANY INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, SERVICE, RELOCATION OR ALTERATION TO OR OF,OR OTHER TAMPERING WITH, THE PRODUCTS PERFORMED BY ANY PERSON OR ENTITY OTHERTHAN SELLER WITHOUT SELLER'S PRIOR WRITTEN APPROVAL, OR ANY USE OF REPLACEMENTPARTS NOT SUPPLIED BY SELLER, SHALL IMMEDIATELY VOID AND CANCEL ALL WARRANTIESWITH RESPECT TO THE AFFECTED PRODUCTS. THE OBLIGATIONS CREATED BY THISWARRANTY STATEMENT TO REPAIR OR REPLACE A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT SHALL BE THE SOLEREMEDY OF BUYER IN THE EVENT OF A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLYPROVIDED IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT, SELLER DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES,WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ORAL OR WRITTEN, WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCTS,INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ORFITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SELLER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE PRODUCTSARE ERROR-FREE OR WILL ACCOMPLISH ANY PARTICULAR RESULT.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201622/158

AethalometerModel AE33CHAPTERPACKING LISTUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201623/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201624/158

AethalometerModel AE334. PACKING LISTStandard Aethalometer AE33 accessories (packed with the instrument):DESCRIPTIONPART NUMBER3/8" OD Sample Inlet Tubing, static dissipative - 3 mM4997Fittings setFlow calibration padAE33 0 02 057Final Inspection recordPower supply cable (220/110 V)AE33 1 99 011Insect screen / water trapM9556USB stick with manualPacking stickerNull Modem Serial cableB13M2943Cartridge filter – bypass (already installed in the instrument)M8072Filter tape – 10 m roll (already installed in the instrument)M8050User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201625/158

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AethalometerModel AE33CHAPTERINTRODUCTIONUser's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201627/158

AethalometerModel AE33User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201628/158

AethalometerModel AE335INTRODUCTIONThe Aethalometer model AE33 collects aerosol particles continuously by drawing the aerosolladen air stream through a spot on the filter tape. It analyzes the aerosol by measuring thetransmission of light through one portion of the filter tape containing the sample, versus thetransmission through an unloaded portion of the filter tape acting as a reference area. Thisanalysis is done at seven optical wavelengths spanning the range from the near-infrared to thenear-ultraviolet. The Aethalometer calculates the instantaneous concentration of opticallyabsorbing aerosols from the rate of change of the attenuation of light transmitted through theparticle-laden filter. In the new Model AE33 Aethalometer, two measurements are obtainedsimultaneously from two sample spots with different rates of accumulation of the sample.Both spots derive their samples from the same input air stream. The two results arecombined mathematically to eliminate nonlinearities and provide the compensated particlelight absorption and BC mass concentration.The method explicitly does not require any knowledge or assumption about the existence,origin or magnitude of any optical nonlinearity arising from the properties of the aerosolparticles collected on the filter.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201629/158

AethalometerModel AE335.1 Basic calculationsThe determination of the Black Carbon concentration is based on the measurement of lightabsorption on a filter loaded with aerosols:Reference I0Sensing ILight sourceOptical detectorsFilterOptical attenuation:𝐴𝑇𝑁 100 ln (𝐼 𝐼0 )I0 reference signal;I spot signalFlow:𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 (1 𝜁)𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 measured flow𝜁 leakage factor𝑆 (Δ𝐴𝑇𝑁 100)Attenuation coefficient:𝑏𝑎𝑡𝑛 Absorption coefficient:𝑏𝑎𝑏𝑠 S spot area; t time𝐹𝑖𝑛 Δ𝑡𝑏𝑎𝑡𝑛C multiple scattering parameter𝐶(Weingartner et al. 2003)𝑏𝑎𝑏𝑠Black carbon concentration:𝐵𝐶 𝜎𝑎𝑖𝑟 mass absorption cross-sectionLoading effect compensation:𝐵𝐶 𝐵𝐶𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 (1 𝑘 𝐴𝑇𝑁)𝜎𝑎𝑖𝑟k compensation parameterFinal equation:𝑆 (Δ𝐴𝑇𝑁1 100)𝐵𝐶 𝐹 (1 𝜁) 𝜎1𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝐶 (1 𝑘 𝐴𝑇𝑁1 ) Δ𝑡User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201630/158

AethalometerModel AE33The optical absorption is measured at seven (7) wavelengths simultaneously.The data obtained from channel 6 (measurement at 880 nm) is the defining standard used forreporting black carbon concentration:Black carbon concentration:BC BC6.Data from the other channels are used for source apportionment. Their wavelengths and theMass Absorption Cross-sections used in the calculations are as follows:Channel Measurement wavelength (nm)1234567370470520590660880950Mass absorption cross-sectionσair (m2/g)18.4714.5413.1411.5810.357.777.19User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201631/158


AethalometerModel AE33ENCLOSUREThe AE33 enclosure is constructed of sheet steel for strength and durability under all conditionsof field operations. The dimensions are for standard 19-inch rack mounting, with 6U chassisheight.POWER SUPPLYThe power supply module consists of the A.C. mains inlet, the power supply electronics and thecooling fan. Since this module dissipates some heat, it is constructed in a hermetically separatedand thermally sealed area.A.C. MAINS POWER INLETThe A.C. mains power inlet accepts standard EU, US or UK supply cords with the IEC-320 femaleconnector end. It consists of the inlet itself, the EMC filter, the main fuse and the primaryON/OFF switch. The switch is a part of the power supply module.COOLING FANThe cooling fan is part of the power supply module. It is controlled thermostatically byelectronics within the power supply area, and it switches on and off automatically duringnormal operation.MAIN COMPUTERThe main computer board also dissipates some heat. Consequently, it is installed in the powersupply area to take advantage of the ventilation. The high level software which controls theinstrument and provides the user interface runs on this Windows-CE computer. This code istermed the Software (“SW”). Upgrades to the Software are published on the Users’ Groupwebsite .User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201633/158

AethalometerModel AE33ELECTRONIC BOARDSEach system module includes electronics boards providing local control functions withmicroprocessors. These use low-level code which is termed the Firmware (“FW”). Upgrades tothe Firmware are published on the Users’ Group website .ETHERNET CONNECTORThe Ethernet connector allows the connection of the AE33 measurement system to externalnetworks.COM1, COM2, COM3 CONNECTORSThe three COM-port connectors allow the connection of the system to RS232 based devices, suchas external accessories and data loggers.USB CONNECTORThe USB connector allows the connection of the system to USB based devices, such as externalaccessoriesSAMPLE AIR INLET and OUTLET CONNECTORSThe Sample Air Inlet fitting provides the connection of the instrument to the air stream to beanalyzed. This may be outdoor or indoor ambient air; combustion effluents; or other laboratoryequipment. The Outlet fitting is the discharge of the analyzed air stream from the instrument.This may be connected to trace gas analyzers (e.g. CO2, offered as accessory); the Sample StreamDryer (dehumidifier, offered as accessory); or returned to a manifold for flow balancing.BALL VALVEThe ball valve is an electrically actuated valve with zero aerosol loss. It connects the analyticalchamber either directly to the sampled air stream; or through a filter for the “active zero” noisetest.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201634/158

AethalometerModel AE33PULSE DAMPERThe pulse dumper (CRC) decreases pump pulsations in the internal airflow, which wouldotherwise perturb the very sensitive optical measurements.DIAPHRAGM PUMPThe suction pump draws the sample air stream into the inlet connector and through theanalytical filtration area. Its speed is under closed-loop software control to stabilize the sampleflow rate to the desired flow set point.FLOW SENSORSTwo flow-sensors measure the airflow in the two sampling streams. Their data is used in theBC calculation as well as for the closed-loop flow stabilization.SOLENOID VALVESThree solenoid valves are used to switch the airflow through different paths according toinstrument operational settings.CHAMBER SLIDES AND LIFT MECHANISMThe vertical slides (linear bearings) allow the measurement chamber to be lifted manually orelectromechanically. When raised manually, a locking latch on the top of the chamber holds itin the raised position. A stepper motor and cam raise and lower the chamber under instrumentcontrol for automatic tape advance, or under manual control. A position sensor providesfeedback to the software to confirm correct operation.TAPE ADVANCE MECHANISMThe Tape Advance components allow the instrument to perform automatic tape advancesduring measurement operation.The primary components are a stepper motor on the“Collection” spool, and two tape sensors.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201635/158

AethalometerModel AE33‘TAPE SUPPLY’ and ‘TAPE COLLECTION’ SPOOLSThe Filter Tape Roll is installed on the Supply (left-hand) spool and threaded through theAnalysis Chamber area and onto the Collection (right-hand) spool. The Collection spool axis isturned by a motor to pull the tape forwards during the Tape Advance process. Optical sensorsobserve both tape rolls: data from the sensor observing the Tape Supply spool is used toestimate the quantity of tape remaining; and also to detect the ‘End-Of-Tape’ condition whenthe spool center is uncoveredTAPE SENSORSOptical sensors on either side of the Measurement Head Bracket observe the tape spools anddetect the amount of tape on each spool.OPTICAL SOURCEThe Optical Source consists of arrays of LED chips of different emission wavelengths.OPTICAL DETECTORSThe Optical Detectors quantitate precisely the amount of light passing through the two spots onthe filter tape. Their data is digitized and passed to the Software to calculate the Black Carbonconcentration in the sampled air stream.FRONT PANEL DOORThe front panel door provides access to the operational area for tape replacement or chambercleaning. It is hermetically sealed to reduce contamination by dust.DOOR KNOBThe push-pull knob secures the front panel door. Pull to open the door; push to latch it closed.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201636/158

AethalometerModel AE33DISPLAY and TOUCH-SCREENThe display and the touch-screen are the primary user interfaces of the instrument, and offer allfunctionality and operational control.USB CONNECTORSThe two USB ports on the front panel door can be used to connect a keyboard, mouse, or solidstate memory drive for data download or upload.STATUS LEDsThe red, yellow and green status LEDs provide an ‘instant glance’ of the operational status ofthe instrument. This status is replicated on the screen with the status flag (see Section 8).POWER ON/OFF SWITCHThe front panel (secondary) POWER ON/OFF switch is located behind the front door. It iselectrically connected in series with the primary ON/OFF switch, which is located on the rearpanel of the instrument, next to the A.C. mains power inlet receptacle.User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201637/158

AethalometerModel AE335.3 Flow DiagramThe Air Flow Schematic of the AE33 allows for different operational modes, per the table below.During normal sampling and analysis, sample air passes through Filter Spots S1 and S2 withdifferent flow rates, defined by the orifice O2. The air flow rates through spot 1 (S1) and spot 2(S2) are derived from the signals from Flow Sensors F1 and FC.The code representing the Valve Status is formed from a series of binary values.From highest to lowest binary values these are:Valve 4-moving (1 YES / 0 NO), Valve 4 position (1 ON / 0 OFF),Valve 3 position (1 ON / 0 OFF), Valve 2 position (1 ON / 0 OFF),Valve 1 position (1 ON / 0 n airMeasurementFlowmeter 00000010User's manual – Ver. 1.54March 201638/158

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