Historical ReviewThe American Nurses Association has been in existence since 1896. The following is a compilationof some of the events and happenings of the ANA and the nursing profession since 1896.1896On September 2, 1896, delegates from ten alumnae associations met at Manhattan Beach Hotel,near New York City, for the purpose of organizing a national professional association for nurses.1897On February 11-12, 1897, the constitution and bylaws were completed and the Nurses' AssociatedAlumnae of the United States and Canada was organized.Isabel Adams Hampton Robb, from Ohio, elected president of the Nurses’ Association Alumnae ofthe United States and Canada, 1897 – 1901.1898The Nurses' Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada held its first annual convention,April 28 – 29, in New York, N.Y.1899The Nurses’ Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada held its second convention inNew York, N. Y., May 1 – 3.1900On October 1, 1900, the first issue of the American Journal of Nursing was distributed.The third convention was held May 3 – 5, in New York, N.Y.In 1900 there were 11,892 nurses (graduates and students).1901The first state nurses' associations were organized to work toward state laws to control nursingpractice.The fourth convention was held September 16 – 17, in Buffalo, N.Y.New York State Nurses Association (April), Virginia Nurses Association (June), Illinois NursesAssociation (July), and New Jersey State Nurses Association (December) were the first states tobecome constituent associations of the Nurses’ Association Alumnae.The Nurses’ Associated Alumnae helped to secure passage of a bill creating the Army Nurse Corps,Female.
The Nurses' Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada was incorporated under the lawsof the state of New York, making it necessary to drop the reference to Canada in the association'stitle.Annie Damer (New York) elected president of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae, 1901 – 1902.The Nurses' Associated Alumnae affiliated with the American Society of Superintendents ofTraining Schools for Nurses to form the American Federation of Nurses for the purpose of applyingfor membership in the National Council of Women.1902Linda L. Rogers of New York City becomes the first school nurse.Mary M. Riddle (Massachusetts) elected president of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae, 1902 –1905.The fifth convention was held May 1 – 3, in Chicago, IL.North Carolina Nurses Association becomes a constituent association of the Nurses’ AssociatedAlumnae.1903The first bills concerning registration for nurses were enacted in North Carolina, New York, NewJersey, and Virginia.Pennsylvania State Nurses Association (June), Minnesota Nurses Association (November), Districtof Columbia Nurses Association (November), and Maryland Nurses Association (December)become constituent associations of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae.The sixth convention was held June 10 – 12, in Boston, MA.1904Indiana State Nurses Association (January), Ohio Nurses Association (January), ConnecticutNurses Association (February), Louisiana State Nurses Association (March), Michigan NursesAssociation (May), Colorado Nurses Association (spring), Iowa Nurses Association (May) becomeconstituent association of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae.The seventh convention was held May 12 – 14, in Philadelphia, PA.1905The Nurses' Associated Alumnae joined with Great Britain and Germany to become the threecharter members of the International Council of Nurses.Annie Damer (New York) elected for a second time as president of the Nurses’ AssociatedAlumnae, 1905 – 1909.
The eighth convention was held May 4 – 5, in Washington, DC.Rhode Island State Nurses Association (January), West Virginia Nurses Association (February),Oregon Nurses Association (fall) become constituent associations of the Nurses’ AssociatedAlumnae.1906The office of Interstate Secretary was created to handle correspondence and assist in organizingstate associations.New Hampshire Nurses Association (May), Missouri Nurses Association (October), WashingtonState Nurses Association (November), Kentucky Nurses Association (November), Nebraska NursesAssociation (November) become constituent associations of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae.The ninth convention was held June 5 – 7, in Detroit, MI.1907Mary Adelaide Nutting was appointed professor of institutional administration at Teachers College,Columbia University, and the first nurse to occupy a university chair.Texas Nurses Association (February), Georgia Nurses Association (May), South Carolina NursesAssociation (fall) become constituent associations of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae.The tenth convention was held May 14 – 16, in Richmond, VA.1908On August 25, 1908, 52 Negro nurses met in New York City and founded the National Associationof Colored Graduate Nurses. Martha Franklin of Connecticut, a graduate of the Women's Hospitalin Philadelphia, was chosen first president of this group which proposed to work for higherprofessional nursing standards, the elimination of discrimination, and the development ofleadership among Negro nurses. It merged with ANA in 1951.Oklahoma Nurses Association (September), Wyoming Nurses Association (November) becomeconstituent associations of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae.The 11th convention was held May 5 – 8, in San Francisco, CA.The Nurses Corps of the United States Navy was founded.1909The Nurses' Associated Alumnae cooperated with the American Red Cross in establishing the RedCross Nursing Service.Jane A. Delano (New York) elected president of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae, 1901 – 1911.
The 12th convention was held June 10 – 11, in Minneapolis, MN.The first complete university school of nursing was organized at the University of Minnesota.Tennessee Nurses Association (January), Idaho Nurses Association (spring) become constituentassociations of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae.1910Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, dies August 13th in London, England at theage of 90.1911The Nurses' Associated Alumnae changed its name to the American Nurses' Association.The 13th convention was held May 31 – June 3, in Boston, MA.Sarah E. Sly (Michigan) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1911 – 1913.ANA established a relief fund for nurses in need of financial assistance.ANA established an Advisory Council composed of the officers of the national organization andthe presidents of state nurses' associations.Mississippi Nurses Association (June) becomes a constituent association of the American NursesAssociation.Number of nurses in 1910 (graduates and students): 76,508 women and 5,819 men for a total of82,327.1912ANA purchased all the stock of the American Journal of Nursing Company with the "JournalPurchase Fund" contributed by nurses, plus a note of 1,600.American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses, founded in 1894, changed itsname to the National League of Nursing Education. Membership in the league was extended toheadworkers of social, educational, and preventive nursing.ANA helps to organize the National Organization for Public Health Nursing; it dissolved in 1952.Kansas State Nurses Association (February), North Dakota Nurses Association (May), DelawareNurses Association (June), Florida Nurses Association (August), Montana Nurses Association(October) become constituent associations of the American Nurses Association.The 14th convention was held June 5 – 7, in Chicago, IL.
ANA accepted into membership the National League of Nursing Education and the NationalOrganization for Public Health Nursing.1913The War Department formally accepted the Red Cross enrollment as a reserve for the Army NurseCorps and the Navy Nurse Corps.Genevieve Cooke (California) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1913 – 1915.Arkansas Nurses Association (April) becomes a constituent association of the American NursesAssociation.The 15th convention was held June 25 – 27, in Atlantic City, NJ.1914ANA established the Central Information Bureau for Legislation and Information to supply dataconcerning the work of state boards of nurse examiners.Utah Nurses Association (March), Alabama State Nurses’ Association (March), Vermont StateNurses Association (May) become constituent associations of the American Nurses Association.The ANA convention was held April 23 – 29, in St. Louis, MO.1915Annie W. Goodrich (New York) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1915 –1918.The ANA convention was held June 20 – 25, in San Francisco, CA.1916The membership basis of ANA was changed from that of membership in the alumnae association tomembership in the state association.Membership in the ANA became a prerequisite for active membership in the National League ofNursing Education.The ANA convention was held April 24 – May 3, in New Orleans, LA.Nursing organizations and representatives of allied fields organized the National EmergencyCommittee on Nursing, later part of the Council of National Defense.ANA incorporated in the District of Columbia.South Dakota Nurses Association (July) becomes a constituent association of the American NursesAssociation.
ANA delegates authorized the organization of association sections. The first sections to beestablished were on private duty nursing and mental hygiene.Through an amendment to the ANA Bylaws, the House of Delegates was created as the governingbody of the organization.1917The ANA convention was held April 26 – May 2, in Philadelphia, PA.1918Annie W. Goodrich originated the Army School of Nursing. Miss Goodrich also served as theschool's first dean.Clara D. Noyes (District of Columbia) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1918– 1922.Hawaii Nurses Association becomes a constituent association of the American Nurses Association.The ANA convention was held May 7 – 11 in Cleveland, OH.Upon request of the Committee on Nursing of the Council of National Defense, ANA completed acensus of nursing resources of the country.The American Red Cross discontinued its Town and Country Nursing Service, establishing in itsplace a Bureau of Public Health Nursing.Number of nurses in the country: all graduate nurses – 83,775; number registered – 66,017; numbernot registered – 17,758.1919In cooperation with the American Red Cross, ANA, NLNE, and NOPHN helped establish theBureau of Information which helped nurses returning from overseas readjust to civilian life. Inconjunction with these activities, the Red Cross provided headquarters facilities in the office of theAtlantic Division of the American Red Cross.Arizona Nurses Association becomes a constituent association of the American Nurses Association.1920ANA, with the assistance of NLNE and NOPHN, adopted the Florence Nightingale School ofNursing at Bordeaux, France, as the American Nurses' Memorial to the nurses who died in WorldWar I. The school's cornerstone was laid on June 5, 1921.ANA helped secure legislation granting relative rank to members of the Army Nurse Corps.ANA appointed a Committee on the Status of Colored Graduate Nurses to establish lines ofcommunication with the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.
Number of women nurses (graduates and students) 143,664; number of male nurses (graduates andstudents) 5,464; total number of nurses 149,128.Nevada Nurses Association becomes a constituent association of the American Nurses Association.The ANA convention was held April 12 – 17 in Atlanta, GA.ANA discontinued its annual conventions in order to support state association conventions inalternate years. ANA's first biennial convention was held in Atlanta with 470 delegates from stateassociations and 2,179 registrants. Between 1920 and 1928 ANA, NLNE, and NOPHN held theirconventions at the same time and in the same city.In September, 1920, ANA and NLNE established headquarters offices at 156 Fifth Avenue, NewYork, NY. The American Red Cross continued to finance headquarters activities of the twoorganizations until July 1, 1921.1921On April 15, 1921, the ANA, NLNE and NOPHN moved their offices to 370 Seventh Avenue,New York, NY.512 student nurses, comprising the first class, were graduated from the Army School of Nursing.New Mexico Nurses Association becomes a constituent association of the American NursesAssociation.ANA organized a legislative section.1922ANA increased its dues from 15 cents to 50 cents per member in order to undertake the financialresponsibility of maintaining a national headquarters.Adda Eldridge (Wisconsin) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1922 – 1926.The ANA convention was held June 26 – July 1 in Seattle, WA.The Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International, a not-for-profit organization whosemission is to improve the health of people worldwide through leadership and scholarship inpractice, education and research, is founded.1923The study, Nursing and Nursing Education in the United States, was published. Financed by theRockefeller Foundation, the study identified needs of nursing education and public health nursing.ANA contributed 16,500 toward the work of the Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools tostudy conditions of nursing service, education, and economics.
Agnes Deans was appointed the first paid executive secretary at the national nursing headquarters.The first special committee on ethical standards was appointed.Collegiate schools of nursing were established at Yale and Western Reserve Universities.By the end of 1923, the headquarters operations of the American Nurses' Association and theNational League" of Nursing Education had been completely separated.1924Committees on legislation and organizational self-analysis were appointed by ANA's Board ofDirectors.In January, 1924, the Puerto Rico Graduate Nurses' Association was accepted into ANAmembership.The ANA convention was held June 16 – 21 in Detroit, MI.ANA organized a government nursing service section.1925The first ANA field secretaries were appointed.The first meeting of the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies, the parent organization ofthe Frontier Nursing Service, was held on May 28, 1925.1926A tentative code of ethics for nurses was adopted by the American Nurses' Association.S. Lillian Clayton (Pennsylvania) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1926 –1930.The ANA convention was held May 17 – 22 in Atlantic City, NJ.As the result of an amendment to the ANA Bylaws, registered nurse status became a prerequisitefor membership.1927A group of state nurses' associations organized a Midwestern conference division.1928The Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools published its study on the supply and demandfor nurses entitled Nurses, Patients and Pocketbooks.ANA, NLNE, and NOPHN appointed a Joint Committee on the Distribution of Nursing Services.
A group of state nurses' associations organized a southern conference division. By 1929, there werefive conference divisions: New England, Middle Atlantic, Midwest, Northwestern, and Southern.ANA organized a federal government nurses section.The ANA convention was held June 4 – 9 in Louisville, KY.1929ANA began a study of registries and private duty nursing. Tentative standards for registries wereformulated.ANA endorsed a group insurance plan (annuity, life, health, and accident) offered by the HarmonAssociation for the Advancement of Nursing.1930Linda Richards, "America's First Trained Nurse," died on April 16, 1930, at the age of 89.In June, 1930, ANA's House of Delegates voted that the national relief fund be discontinued andthe existing fund be divided among the respective state associations on a per capita basis accordingto the 1932 membership.Elnora E. Thomson (Oregon) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1930 – 1934.ANA's Special Committee on Reclassification submitted a brief and specifications for civiliannursing service in the federal government to the Personnel Classification Board.The Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools published "The Student Body."As the result of a bylaw amendment, provision was made for male nurses to become members ofthe American Nurses' Association.The ANA convention was held June 9 – 14 in Milwaukee, WI.In 1930 there were 294,189 nurses (graduates and students), which is an increase of 2,374% fromthe 11,892 nurses (graduates and students) in 1900. 98% of the 294,189 nurses were female,leaving only 2% or 5,452 male nurses in the U.S.1931The Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools published "What Nurses Learn" and "WhoControls the Schools."In April, 1931, ANA headquarters was relocated at 450 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY, with theNOPHN, NLNE, and seventeen other national health agencies.
ANA, through the Joint Committee on Distribution of Nursing Services, formulated standards ofemployment for private duty nurses, including standards and terms of employment for nursespracticing in institutional settings.The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists was organized.1932The National League of Nursing Education accepted the function of the Department of Educationof the American Nurses' Association, while retaining its own organization.The Association of Collegiate Schools of Nursing was organized.The ANA convention was held April 11 – 15 in San Antonio, TX.1933The Joint Committee on Distribution of Nursing Services sponsored a survey on hourly nursingservice.1934The Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools published the results of its final studies, AnActivity Analysis of Nursing and Nursing Schools- Today and Tomorrow.Cooperating with NLNE and NOPHN, ANA established the Nursing Information Bureau under theadministration of the American Journal of Nursing Company.ANA's House of Delegates approved an eight-hour day for nurses and conducted a nationalcampaign to promote better working hours.Susan G. Francis (Pennsylvania) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1934 –1938.The ANA convention was held April 22 – 27 in Washington, DC. Convention theme: “TheChanging Order”.ANA, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, the Civil Works Administration and statenurses' associations collaborated on a survey of unemployed nurses. ANA also assisted states infunding employment for nurses on relief.In April, 1934, ANA moved their headquarters operation to 50 West 50th Street, New York, NY.On July 5, 1934, the inaugural meeting of the International Council of Nurses, FlorenceNightingale Foundation was held in London, England.The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses established headquarters in New York City.As of December 31, 1934, ANA membership totaled 110,598.
1935ANA appointed a committee to study health insurance proposals and programs and theirimplications for the nursing profession.The work of ANA's Legislative Section, organized in 1921, was assumed by the Committee onLegislation.ANA, NLNE, and NOPHN formed a Joint Committee on Community Nursing Service to helpcommunities plan a more complete nursing service.Congress enacted the Social Security Act.The National Labor Relations Act was enacted; it protected the rights of workers who wished toorganize and bargain collectively.1936In 1934, ANA's Board of Directors appointed a special committee to consider a request to moveANA headquarters to Chicago. This committee explored the distribution of nurses across thecountry, the expense of relocation, and possible relocation sites. In 1936, the Board recommendedthat ANA retain headquarters offices in New York in close proximity to other health organizations.The Mary Mahoney Award is established by the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.ANA undertook a project to review and restate the function of the association as well as the jointfunctions of the three national nursing organizations.The three national nursing organizations established a joint committee to examine the issue ofsubsidiary workers.ANA appointed a committee to consider the matter of lay membership and lay participation in theAmerican Nurses' Association.The ANA convention was held June 21 – 26 in Los Angeles, CA. Convention theme: “Nursing asPart of Tomorrow’s Community Health Service”.A committee of the National League of Nursing Education and the Division of Nursing of theCouncil of the American Hospital Association prepared the Manual of the Essentials of GoodHospital Nursing Service.1937The board of directors of the American Nurses' Association appointed a special committee for thepurpose of considering the question of nurse membership in unions.1938
ANA voted to raise 88,500 for the Florence Nightingale International Foundation, "a perpetualand living memorial to the undying spirit and influence of nursing's great pioneer."ANA reported on its study of incomes and employment conditions of nurses. ANA recommended asalary schedule for nurses comparable to those of other women workers, a 48-hour week for nursespracticing in institutions, and vacations with pay.Julia C. Stimson (New York) elected president of the American Nurses Association, 1938 – 1944.The ANA convention was held April 24 – 29 in Kansas City, MO. Convention theme: “TheIndividual Nurses’ Responsibility for Professional Progress”.The “Spirit of Nursing” monument was dedicated in Arlington National Cemetery, VA.Delegates voted to allow one delegate for every one hundred members of the state nurses'association. Prior to 1938 the voting body at each convention was based on one delegate for every50 members.1939On January 22, 1939, ANA's Board of Directors appointed a special committee for the purpose ofconsidering the possibility of consolidation of the three national nursing organizations.ANA adopted a policy favoring the licensure of all who nurse for hire.1940ANA's House of Delegates offered President Roosevelt its support in any activity in which nursescould be of service to the country.ANA organized sections for male nurses and general staff nurses.ANA proposed and became a member of the Nursing Council on National Defense which wasformed to coordinate activities of the profession on national and local levels during the nationalemergency. The council was renamed the National Nursing Council for War Service in 1942.ANA headquarters office was relocated at 1790 Broadway in New York City.The ANA convention was held May 12 – 17 in Philadelphia, PA. Convention theme: “Nursing in aDemocracy”.ANA and NLNE published a Digest of Nurse Practice Acts and Board Rules to facilitate stateregistration of nurses by reciprocity.Number of nurses (graduates and students) from the US Census; 361,215 women and 8,072 menfor a total of 369,287.
A Joint Committee of the American Hospital Association and the National League of NursingEducation, in cooperation with the American Nurses' Association, published a report on"Administrative Cost Analysis for Nursing Service and Nursing Education."1941At the request of the National Nursing Council for War Service, ANA and NLNE made a study ofnursing vacancies in U.S. hospitals.ANA participated in a national survey of nurses conducted by the U. S. Public Health Service.In light of the fact that New York City was considered a possible target for enemy attack, ANAmade arrangements to store valuable historical records in Chicago.Between 1941 and 1946, ANA assisted in the recruitment of nurses for military service throughstate and local committees.1942ANA's House of Delegates increased the membership dues from 50 cents to 75 cents, effectiveJanuary 1, 1943.At the 1942 biennial convention, May 17 – 22 in Chicago, IL, delegates adopted a motion thatevery four years the American Nurses' Association, National League of Nursing Education, andNational Organization for Public Health Nursing would hold a joint convention. Convention theme:“Nursing at the Nation’s Service”.ANA endorsed a course for volunteer nurses' aides established by the American Red Cross and theOffice of Civilian Defense.ANA published a Study of Organization, Control, and Financing of Nurses' ProfessionalRegistries.The National Association for Practical Nurse Education was organized.1943The U. S. Cadet Nurse Corps was created in an attempt to bring more students into nursing schools.ANA obtained a hearing before the U. S. Commissioner of Internal Revenue which resulted in aruling that the costs of nursing uniforms could be deducted for income tax purposes.ANA assisted the War Manpower Commission in a study of civilian hospital services.ANA established a Clearing Bureau on State Board Problems.The National League of Nursing Education broadened its membership base to include lay members.1944
ANA worked to secure passage of legislation granting commissioned rank to nurses in militaryservices.A Statistics and Research Unit was established at the association headquarters.ANA made a study of the implications of the Social Security Act for nurses.The ANA Bylaws were amended in order that no officer is elected to the same office for more thantwo successive terms.Katharine J. Densford Dreves (Minnesota) elected president of the American Nurses Association,1944 – 1948.The ANA convention was held June 5 – 8 in Buffalo, NY. Convention theme: none.As a result of the action of ANA's Board of Directors in June, 1944, the name and status of theClearing Bureau on Problems of State Boards of Nurse Examiners was changed to the Bureau ofState Boards of Nurse Examiners. One function of this body was to devise methods and proceduresfor bringing about desirable and reasonable uniformity in relation to standards, regulations,examinations, and records.ANA organized sections for industrial nurses and administrators of nursing services in hospitals.The three national nursing organizations adopted a recommendation favoring the expansion ofhealth insurance plans to provide for nursing service, including nursing care in the home. Theorganizations expressed the belief that, in addition to voluntary effort, governmental assistance wasnecessary for obtaining adequate distribution of health services.ANA delegates adopted an amendment to the bylaws which designated the state association as theconstituent association of the American Nurses' Association. According to the bylaw revision,registered nurses belonging to state nurses' associations automatically became members of theANA.1945ANA spearheaded a national collection of uniforms and clothing for nurses in war-devastatedcountries.ANA organized a campaign to restore the American Nurses' Memorial at the Florence NightingaleSchool of Nursing at Bordeaux, France.ANA intensified efforts to recruit nurses for military service as an alternative to PresidentRoosevelt's proposal to draft nurses into military services.On May 25, 1945, ANA's Professional Counseling and Placement Service was officially organizedand incorporated. The service provided counseling and job placement services without fee to all
registered nurses, including non-members, student nurses, practical nurses, and employers. Specialattention was given to the needs of nurses demobilized from military service.On September 1, 1945, the Nurse Placement Service, Midwest Bureau, was acquired andreorganized as the branch office of the Professional Counseling and Placement Service of theAmerican Nurses' Association.ANA analyzed the postwar plans of approximately 60,000 civilian nurses. ANA also cooperatedwith the Red Cross in analyzing postwar plans of 41,000 Army and Navy nurses.The National Nursing Planning Committee published a Comprehensive Program for NationwideAction in the Field of Nursing.1946ANA was successful in obtaining professional status classification for nurses from the U. S. CivilService Commission.ANA's Professional Counseling and Placement Service issued criteria to guide state units indeveloping their own placement services.ANA established a Committee on Employment Conditions of Nurses to explore the association'sresources for assisting nurses to obtain needed improvements in salaries and working conditions.The ANA House of Delegates voted to inaugurate an Economic Security Program, a long-rangecomprehensive program to stabilize nursing services, improve working conditions, and provideimmediate and long-term economic security for nurses in all fields. State nurses' associations wereurged to conduct active programs, including collective bargaining for nurses.The ANA convention was held September 23 – 27 in Atlantic City, NJ. Convention theme:“Nursing in the Nation’s Plan for Health.”The ANA Board of Directors appointed a committee of one nurse representative from each stateboard of nursing, “The Special Committee of State Boards of Nursing.”The ANA House of Delegates endorsed the 8-hour day, 40-hour week for all nurses and called forthe elimination of discrimination against minority groups.In April, 1946, Raymond Rich Associates was selected to undertake a detailed study of theorganizational structure, functions, and facilities of the six national nursing organizations.ANA delegates adopted the first association platform.ANA delegates voted to increase the annual dues from 75 cents to 3.00.
The Hospital Survey and Construction Act (Hill-Burton Bill) was enacted. This bill provided for afive-year federal grant-in-aid program to the states for the purpose of surveying needs, planning,and constructing necessary hospital and health centers.1947ANA hosted the Ninth Congress of the International Council of Nurses in Atlantic City.Army and Navy nurses were granted permanent commissioned officer status.ANA initiated a long-range public relations program to inform the public and the profession ofnursing activities and interests. ANA's public relations department absorbed the NursingInformation Bureau as well as the public relations programs of the other nursing organizations.The boards of nursing asked ANA to establish a committee of state boards of nursing to devisemethods and procedures for bringing about desirable and reasonable uniformity in relation
Texas Nurses Association (February), Georgia Nurses Association (May), South Carolina Nurses Association (fall) become constituent associations of the Nurses’ Associated Alumnae. The tenth convention was held May 14 – 16, in Richmond, VA. 1908. On August 25, 1908, 52 Negro nurses