ENTTMHIT OF T HS W E' L LDEFEENDARDSTMTEERU NII CA MY DE PARJoint Publication 3-41AT E S O FAChemical, Biological, Radiological,and Nuclear Response09 September 2016

PREFACE1. ScopeThis publication provides joint doctrine for military domestic or international responseto minimize the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident.2. PurposeThis publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the JointChiefs of Staff (CJCS). It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the activities and performanceof the Armed Forces of the United States in operations, and it provides considerations formilitary interaction with governmental and nongovernmental agencies, multinational forces,and other interorganizational partners. It provides military guidance for the exercise ofauthority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs) and prescribesjoint doctrine for operations and training. It provides military guidance for use by the ArmedForces in preparing and executing their plans and orders. It is not the intent of thispublication to restrict the authority of the JFC from organizing the force and executing themission in a manner the JFC deems most appropriate to ensure unity of effort in theaccomplishment of objectives.3. Applicationa. Joint doctrine established in this publication applies to the Joint Staff, commanders ofcombatant commands, subunified commands, joint task forces, subordinate components ofthese commands, the Services, combat support agencies, and the National Guard.b. The guidance in this publication is authoritative; as such, this doctrine will befollowed except when, in the judgment of the commander, exceptional circumstances dictateotherwise. If conflicts arise between the contents of this publication and the contents ofService publications, this publication will take precedence unless the CJCS, normally incoordination with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has provided more currentand specific guidance. Commanders of forces operating as part of a multinational (allianceor coalition) military command should follow multinational doctrine and procedures ratifiedby the United States. For doctrine and procedures not ratified by the United States,commanders should evaluate and follow the multinational command’s doctrine andprocedures, where applicable and consistent with US law, regulations, and doctrine.For the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff:KEVIN D. SCOTTVice Admiral, USNDirector, Joint Force Developmenti

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SUMMARY OF CHANGESREVISION OF JOINT PUBLICATION 3-41DATED 21 JUNE 2012 Incorporates a new title highlighting the Department of Defense’s (DOD’s)integrated chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) responseenterprise capabilities and joint force matrix. Characterizes CBRN response (previously consequence management), as a uniqueDOD response capability and responsibility. Updates CBRN response construct. Clarifies DOD’s supporting roles during an international chemical, biological,radiological, and nuclear response (previously foreign consequence management)on foreign territory, regardless of who is designated the United States Governmentlead. Clarifies the relationships of “unity of command” and “unity of effort” for a dualstatus commander (DSC). Highlights the DSC will execute command and control separately over both federaland state military forces, through their respective chains of command. Highlights the importance of the CBRN response force to minimize the effects of aCBRN incident. Updates to Appendix C, “Department of Defense Domestic Chemical, Biological,Radiological, and Nuclear Response Enterprise Assets,” to reflect the overall jointforce CBRN response construct. Adds or revises two definitions and deletes two CBRN-related definitions in JointPublication (JP) 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and AssociatedTerminology. Reduces redundancies and improves doctrinal guidance relationships between JP3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments;JP 3-27, Homeland Defense; JP 3-28, Defense Support of Civil Authorities; JP 3-29,Foreign Humanitarian Assistance; and JP 3-40, Countering Weapons of MassDestruction.iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEEXECUTIVE SUMMARY . viiCHAPTER IOVERVIEW General . I-1Domestic, International, and Department of Defense-Led Situations . I-3Emergency Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and NuclearResponse . I-4Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response . I-4General Planning Considerations for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, andNuclear Response . I-10Limitation and Mitigation Strategies . I-29CHAPTER IIDOMESTIC CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEARRESPONSE General . II-1Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities, and Assets . II-3Command Relationships . II-12Considerations . II-17Unique Planning Considerations in the Domestic Operational Environment . II-27Applicable Laws and Agreements in the Domestic Operational Environment . II-28CHAPTER IIIINTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL,AND NUCLEAR RESPONSE General . III-1Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities, and Assets . III-6Command Relationships . III-11Affected Nation Considerations . III-14Joint and Multinational Force Considerations . III-16Unique Planning Considerations for Operations Outside of the United States . III-17Applicable International Laws and Agreements. III-19CHAPTER IVDEPARTMENTOFDEFENSE-LEDCHEMICAL,RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR RESPONSE BIOLOGICAL,General . IV-1Roles and Responsibilities . IV-3v

Table of Contents Command Relationships .Joint Force Considerations .Planning Considerations During Military Operations .General Planning Considerations .IV-4IV-4IV-4IV-6APPENDIXABCDEKey Legal, Strategy, and Policy Documents and International Protocols . A-1Planning Considerations for Logistics and Other Services from DomesticBase Support Installations and Foreign Theater Assets . B-1Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and NuclearResponse Enterprise . C-1References . D-1Administrative Instructions . E-1GLOSSARYPart IPart IIAbbreviations and Acronyms . GL-1Terms and Definitions . l, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Responses . I-2Control Zones . I-26Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response . II-2Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear ResponseCommand Relationships . II-13Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response Activitiesby Operational Phase . II-21International Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and NuclearResponse . III-2Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Affected StateCoordination Process. III-4Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, andNuclear Response Enterprise . C-2JP 3-41

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYCOMMANDER’S OVERVIEW Provides Overview of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)Response Discusses Domestic CBRN Response Covers International CBRN Response Explains Department of Defense-Led CBRN ResponseOverview of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear ResponseGeneralThis publication focuses on the US militaryresponse to minimize the effects of a chemical,biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN)incident, regardless of who is designated theUnited States Government (USG) lead. Thisincludes the response to both deliberate andinadvertent CBRN hazards. As preparation is arequirement for effective response efforts,emergency preparedness activities are discussed aswell. A US military response is not automaticallytriggered by a CBRN incident.Chemical, Biological,Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) IncidentA CBRN incident is any occurrence resulting fromthe use of CBRN weapons and devices; theemergence of secondary hazards arising fromcounterforce targeting; or the release of toxicindustrial materials (TIMs) into the environment,involving the emergence of CBRN hazards. AUSG response would normally only be requiredwhen local, territorial, tribal, or state authoritiesare overwhelmed by the incident; if there areshortfalls in local, territorial, tribal, state, or federalresponse capabilities, other USG departments andagencies may require a defense support of civilauthorities (DSCA) request for Department ofDefense (DOD) assistance. For CBRN incidentsoccurring on foreign soil, either a host nation (HN)or international organization could request a USGresponse. An incident likely to create a harmfuldomestic effect, such as the spread of infectiousdisease or radioactive material across borders intovii

Executive Summarythe US, may require the President to declare anemergency under the National Emergencies Act.Domestic, International, andDepartment of Defense-LedSituationsThe geographic scope of the domestic CBRNresponse is associated with the US homeland. Thehomeland is the physical region that includes thecontinental US, Alaska, Hawaii, US territories, andsurrounding territorial waters and airspace.Generally, DOD, when tasked, supportsDepartment of Homeland Security (DHS) withinthe guidelines of the National ResponseFramework (NRF) and National IncidentManagement System. DOD normally supports theDepartment of State (DOS) as the lead agency inUSG international chemical, biological,radiological, and nuclear response (ICBRN-R)efforts. In cases where the HN lacks the capabilityto request assistance or DOS lacks an establisheddiplomatic presence, the President may directDOD to lead an ICBRN-R mission. DOD maylead USG domestic and ICBRN-R efforts whendirected to do so by the President. In these cases,DOD is the supported agency for response untilthey are able to transition lead agencyresponsibilities to another interagency CBRN lead:DHS in the case of a domestic response and DOSin the case of an international response. DOD willalways be the lead agency for a CBRN response onmilitary installations, in cases where the CBRNhazard emerges from DOD property and whererequired by law. DOD will also lead CBRNresponses during combat operations, militarytransportation mishaps, storage and/or weaponhandling mishaps, and other CBRN incidents inwhich DOD is deemed responsible.Emergency Preparedness forCBRN ResponseCBRN response provides the operationalframework for authorized measures DODundertakes in preparation for anticipated CBRNincidents to minimize the loss of life and propertyand to assist with the response and any requiredshort-term recovery. This includes having plans,policies, procedures, training, and equipmentnecessary to effectively respond to CBRNincidents.viiiJP 3-41

Executive SummaryCBRN ResponseCBRN response considers the total capabilities andlimitations of affected civil authorities, from thelocal first responders, up through the stateresponse, to the federal response level. When civilauthorities, up to, and including the federal level,lack necessary CBRN capabilities to effectivelyrespond to the situation, military CBRN support isrequested. The Office of the Secretary of Defense(OSD) and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff(CJCS) issuances frame US military support of aUSG response for domestic and internationalCBRN incidents.General Planning Considerationsfor CBRN ResponsePlanning considerations for responding to CBRNincidents are influenced by a variety of factors,including USG policy decisions, lessons learnedfrom responses to previous incidents, capabilitylimitations, time, current military operations,studies and analyses, modeling and simulation,live-agent tests and experiments, as well asanalysis and exercise of national planningscenarios. Military planners need to be able totranslate a military analysis of availablecapabilities for use in a CBRN response.Limitation and MitigationStrategiesThe risk management process plays an integral roleassisting commanders in making decisions where toapply scarce or limited resources, minimizing theeffects of threats and hazards in order to accomplishthe mission. Risk management entails developingcontrols and making risk decisions, implementingthose controls, and then supervising and evaluating.Any CBRN response must be rapid in order to savelives and minimize the overall impact of the incident.Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear ResponseGeneralDomestic CBRN response is a type of supportprovided within the DSCA mission, conducted byDOD forces in order to save lives, protect propertyand the environment, and meet basic human needs.As a DSCA activity, domestic CBRN responsefocuses on providing DOD support directly to thecivil authorities leading the CBRN response at theincident. State and local governments are closestto those affected by incidents, and have a lead roleix

Executive Summaryin response and recovery. A joint task force (JTF)typically leads DOD forces supporting domesticCBRN response, providing command and control(C2) of forces trained and equipped for thismission, as well as contingency sourcedconventional forces.xRoles and ResponsibilitiesDomestic CBRN response is managed at thelowest possible level, with DOD providing supportas directed. When the Secretary of Defense(SecDef) approves a request for DSCA during aCBRN incident, Commander, United StatesNorthern Command, and Commander, UnitedStates Pacific Command, are the supportedgeographic combatant commanders (GCCs) forCBRN responses within their respective areas ofresponsibility (AORs) as designated in the UnifiedCommand Plan for a federal response. DODsupports the NRF primary and coordinatingagencies during domestic CBRN responseoperations. The operational chain of command forfederal forces remains with the GCC; theoperational chain of command for state controlledNational Guard forces remains with the governor.Command RelationshipsMilitary forces always remain under the assignedC2 as established by either Title 10, United StatesCode (USC); Title 14, USC; Title 32, USC; or instate active duty. A dual-status commander maybe utilized in a domestic CBRN response in orderto facilitate unity of command for participatingfederal forces and also, unity of effort betweenfederal and state military forces operating within asingle state. Based on the magnitude, type ofincident, and anticipated level of resourceinvolvement, the supported combatant commander(CCDR) may utilize a JTF to command federal(Title 10, USC) military activities in support of theincident. If a JTF is established, consistent withoperational requirements, its C2 element iscolocated at the joint field office and includedwithin the unified coordination group to ensurecoordination and unity of effort.ConsiderationsPlanning considerations are significantly differentfor the joint force conducting CBRN response asJP 3-41

Executive Summarythe primary mission than for the joint forceconducting other missions. Requirements forprotecting joint forces remain a constant priorityfor the joint force commander (JFC), especiallywhen operating in a contaminated environment.DSCA may also entail unique legal implicationsthat need to be considered through all phases ofCBRN response planning and operations. To beeffective in such a response, key personnel need tofully understand both interagency and CBRNresponse techniques and procedures. JTF-CivilSupport can function as the core JTF headquarterselement.Unique Planning Considerationsin the Domestic OperationalEnvironmentUnique planning considerations include: resourcesprovided by a designated base support installation,United States Army Corps of Engineers services,mortuary affairs assistance, decontaminationplanning, and control zones.International Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear ResponseGeneralICBRN-R is assistance provided by the USG to animpacted nation to respond to the effects of adeliberate or inadvertent CBRN incident onforeign territory. DOD’s CBRN response includesimmediate life saving measures for the affectedHN population, as well as efforts to protect UScitizens and Armed Forces abroad, as well as thoseof its friends and allies, in order to minimizehuman casualties and to provide temporaryassociatedessentialservices. Primaryresponsibility for responding to an internationalCBRN incident resides with the impacted nation,unless otherwise stipulated under relevantinternational agreements. ICBRN-R applies tointernational incidents involving the deliberate orinadvertent release of CBRN materials, includingtoxic industrial chemicals and TIMs. It does notapply to the following activities: Acts of nature or acts of man which do notinvolve CBRN materials. Response to suchincidents is conducted as foreign disaster reliefoperations in accordance with Department ofDefense Directive 5100.46, Foreign DisasterRelief (FDR).xi

Executive Summary Roles and ResponsibilitiesxiiCBRN incidents that are the direct result of USmilitary operations in a foreign country whereDOS does not have an established presence.Primary responsibility for responding to,managing, and mitigating the consequences of aninternational CBRN incident resides with theaffected nation’s government.Whenoverwhelmed, the impacted nation is responsiblefor requesting international assistance and sharingall relevant information about the CBRN incidentwith international partners. Normally, all USGsupport to the affected nation will be coordinatedby the responsible chief of mission (COM) andcountry team. All matters requiring DOS reviewor approval should be submitted to the COM. TheCJCS reviews all requests for ICBRN-R. CJCSassesses whether US forces are able and availableto support ICBRN-R operations concurrent withany on-going military operations. CJCS developsUS military strategy, policy, and positions tosupport GCC operational planning and providesrecommendations for DOD support to USGICBRN-R operations. Each GCC identifies aheadquarters element to provide the initial incidentresponse and serve as the initial C2 element ofDOD for ICBRN-R operations within theirrespective AOR. When in a supporting role,CCDRs provide requested forces and assets to thesupported GCCs.As directed by SecDef,Commander, United States TransportationCommand, plans and prepares to move selectedDOD forces and identified elements, equipment,supplies, and other commodities and those of otherUSG departments and agencies, the impactednation, and international partners in support of aPresident-directed ICBRN-R and/or other militaryCBRN response assistance operations. DefenseThreat Reduction Agency (DTRA) providesoperational and technical advice and support toDOD components and other USG departments andagencies, as requested and approved regardingICBRN-R operations. As in the US, if a CBRNincident occurs, US commanders on foreignterritory may, when requested by the impactednation, exercise their immediate response authorityJP 3-41

Executive Summaryto assist. However, their response is morerestrictive (i.e., limited to only saving lives) thanwithin the US homeland.AssetsAssets that could respond to an ICBRN-R incidentinclude: foreign emergency support team,consequence management support team; DTRACBRN military advisory team; the US ArmedForces Radiobiology Research Institute; Air ForceRadiation Assessment Team; the US Marine CorpsChemical-Biological Incident Response Force; andthe United States Army 20th Chemical, Biological,Radiological, Nuclear, Explosives Command.Command RelationshipsThe DOD supports the lead federal agency (LFA)during USG ICBRN-R operations, unlessotherwise directed by the President. DOD forcesremain under the C2 of the supported CCDR.DOS retains responsibility for coordination amongUSG entities.Affected Nation ConsiderationsA major part of any ICBRN-R operation isaugmenting affected nation operations, notreplacing them. The US embassy within thecountry should identify HN CBRN responsecapabilities in order to maximize the effectivenessand efficiency of the USG response. ICBRN-Rmay require specialized equipment such asdecontamination systems, mobile laboratories,field hospitals, medical equipment, and emergencyshelter. However, the affected nation may havesafety, interoperability, or other issues with theimportation and use of such equipment in a CBRNresponse. The affected nation will likely have itsown guidelines for decontamination. However,international standards may also apply to aninternational CBRN incident.Joint and Multinational ForceConsiderationsIn general, when conducting ICBRN-R, standingrules of engagement (SROE) should be applied.However, CCDRs may augment SROE withsupplemental measures or by submittingsupplemental measures to SecDef for approval.During ICBRN-R operations, the ability of the JTFto work with all organizations and groups isessential to mission accomplishment. The civil–xiii

Executive Summarymilitary operations center is a focal point as theprimary meeting place of these elements,represented by US Service liaisons, military liaisonsfrom participating countries, US Office of ForeignDisaster Assistance representatives, DOS personnel,affected nation representatives, and representativesfrom the United Nations, lorganizations.Applicable International Lawsand AgreementsThe complexity of ICBRN-R policies, treaties, andagreements requires continuous involvement of thestaff judge advocate or appropriate legal advisorwith the planning, control, and assessment ofoperations. International law, policies, treaties,and agreements to which the US is a signatoryidentify certain rights and obligations that mayaffect joint operations. These legal requirementsmay pose constraints and restraints.Department of Defense-Led Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and NuclearResponseGeneralDOD-led CBRN response operations are generallyconducted in one of two situations. DOD may bedirected to coordinate the USG CBRN response ina permissive or uncertain environment where theDOS has no established diplomatic presence in thejoint operations area to facilitate LFA activities, orthere is no functioning HN government to meetICBRN-R requirements. The US military will leadCBRN response operations conducted concurrentlywith military operations in hostile environmentsconsistent with strategic planning guidance.Roles and ResponsibilitiesOSD coordinates JFC requests for support andforces with other USG departments and agencies.OSD coordinates with other USG departments andagencies for the transition or transfer ofresponsibility of CBRN response operations toother USG departments and agencies, internationalagencies, or other countries, as appropriate. CJCS,through the Joint Staff, coordinates with combatantcommands and Services to make sure that DODled CBRN response operations are executedxivJP 3-41

Executive Summaryincompliance with domestic, international, andforeign laws, policies, treaties, and agreements.Joint Force ConsiderationsOne major objective is to conduct DOD-led CBRNresponse operations without jeopardizing criticalmilitary operations and objectives. However,commanders should plan for the diversion ofcombat forces and possible changes to overall endstates and objectives due to the significance of aCBRN incident.Planning Considerations DuringMilitary OperationsDOD-led CBRN response operations may berequired to facilitate combat operations, anddepending on the nature and purpose of theactivities, may require coordination with responseoperations of domestic civilian authorities,multiple countries, partners, and a wide variety ofinternational organizations and other NGOs.Regardless of the status of an impacted nationgovernment or partner nations, internationalorganizations, and NGOs will have significantequities in the operation. Therefore, JFCs ernmental coordination requirements.DOD-led CBRN response operations can occur atany point in a campaign. Therefore, theseoperations should be considered as a branch tocontingency operations.General Planning ConsiderationsMany shaping activities take place to support DODefforts to lead CBRN response. These activitiesinclude joint, interagency, bilateral, andmultinational CBRN response exercises andtraining; efforts to build partner CBRN responsecapacity; and consultation with partner nations andcivil authorities. US law, international law,policies, treaties, and agreements to which the USis a signatory, identify certain rights andobligations that may affect DOD-led CBRNresponse operations. These legal requirementsmay pose constraints and restraints and shape theplanning and execution of operations.xv

Executive SummaryCONCLUSIONThis publication provides joint doctrine formilitary domestic or international response tominimize the effects of a CBRN incident.xviJP 3-41

CHAPTER IOVERVIEW“DOD [Department of Defense] forces will prepare for and, when directed by thePresident of the United States or SecDef [Secretary of Defense], conduct CBRN[chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear] response operations in defensesupport of civil authorities in the homeland to save lives, protect property and theenvironment, and meet basic human needs in order to reduce the effects of aCBRN incident.”Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 3125.01, Defense Response toChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Incidents in theHomeland1. Generala. This publication focuses on the US military response to minimize the effects of achemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) incident, regardless of who isdesignated the United States Government (USG) lead. This includes the response to bothdeliberate and inadvertent CBRN hazards. As preparation is a requirement for effectiveresponse efforts, emergency preparedness (EP) activities are discussed as well. A USmilitary response is not automatically triggered by a CBRN incident.(1) CBRN Incidents. A CBRN incident is any occurrence, resulting from the useof CBRN weapons and devices; the emergence of secondary hazards arising fromcounterforce targeting; or the release of toxic industrial materials (TIMs) into theenvironment, involving the emergence of CBRN hazards. Domestically, a CBRN incidentmay result in a USG response under the National Oil and Hazardous Substances PollutionContingency Plan; the President declaring an emergency or a major disaster under the RobertT. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act or National Emergency Act; andresponse by USG departments and agencies under their own legal and regulatory authorities.A USG response would normally only be required when local, territorial, tribal, or stateauthorities are overwhelmed by the incident; if there are shortfalls in local, territorial, tribal,state, or federal response capabilities; or other USG departments and agencies may require adefense support of civil authorities (DSCA) request for Department of Defense (DOD)assistance. For CBRN incidents occurring on foreign soil, either a host nation (HN) orinternational organization could request a USG response. An incident likely to create aharmful domestic effect, such as the spread of infectious disease or radioactive materialac

vii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY COMMANDER'S OVERVIEW Provides Overview of Chemical, Biologica l, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Response Discusses Domestic CBRN Response Covers International CBRN Response Explains Department of Defense-Led CBRN Response Overview of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response General This publication focuses on the US military