Stratford-on-Avon DistrictDevelopment RequirementsSupplementary Planning Document (SPD)Consultation DraftPart V: Climate Change Adaptation and MitigationJanuary 2020
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 20202Part V:Climate Change Adaptation andMitigationContentsV1. How to Use this SPD – The 5 Principles and Checklists4V2. Principle 1: Increasing accessibility - reducing the need to travel by private car5V3. Principle 2: Improving energy efficiency in buildings8V4. Principle 3: Adapting to Higher Temperatures16V5. Principle 4: Mitigating Flood Risk21V6. Principle 5: Mitigating Biodiversity loss25V7. Case Studies27V8. Climate Change Checklist32Appendix 1: Climate Change Checklist for New Build (Non-Householder) Developments where over 20Square Metres of Additional Floorspace is proposed33Appendix 2: Climate Change Checklist for Conversion and Change of Use developments36Appendix 3: Climate Change Checklist for Householder Developments where over 20 square metres ofAdditional Floorspace is Proposed38Appendix 4: Glossary40
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 20203This part of the Development Requirements SPD provides further detailed guidanceon the interpretation of the following Core Strategy policies in relation to climatechange mitigation and adaptation, as appropriate: CS.2 Climate Change and Sustainable ConstructionCS.3 Sustainable EnergyCS.4CS.5CS.6CS.7CS.9Water Environment and Flood RiskLandscapeNatural EnvironmentGreen InfrastructureDesign and DistinctivenessCS.19 Housing Mix and TypeCS.22 Economic DevelopmentCS.25 Healthy CommunitiesCS.26 Transport & CommunicationsAS.1-9 Area StrategiesAS.10 Countryside and VillagesAS.11 Large Rural Brownfield SitesIt will be used by Stratford-on-Avon District Council to help reach decisions onwhether to approve or refuse planning applications. Making sure that applicationscomply with the guidance contained within SPD will make it easier for the Council togrant planning permission.
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 2020V1.4How to Use this SPD – The 5 Principles and ChecklistsStratford-on-Avon District Council is committed to tackling climate change, and in July2019 the Council declared a ‘Climate Emergency’ as a pledge to take local action tocontribute to national carbon neutral targets.The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) recognises the role of the planningsystem in supporting the transition to a low carbon future by helping to shape placesthat contribute to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, minimise vulnerability andimprove resilience.In February 2019 the Committee on Climate Change assessed whether homes areadequately prepared for the challenges of climate change. The Committee identified inits report ‘UK Housing: Fit for the Future?’ a number of actions including the need fornew homes to be built to be low-carbon, energy and water efficient and climate resilient.In a joint report by the Royal Town Planning Institute and Town and Country PlanningAssociation ‘Rising to the Climate Crisis: A Guide for Local Authorities on Planning forClimate Change’ (Dec. 2018) it is acknowledged that whilst work is needed at aninternational and national level, local action is also needed as the solutions to many ofthe adverse impacts of climate change need to be developed locally.Land use planning can contribute to the transition to a low-carbon future, centred on thefollowing 5 principles based around two key themes:1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions Principle 1: Increasing accessibility - reducing the need to travel by private carPrinciple 2: Improving energy efficiency2. Implementing adaptation and mitigation measures Principle 3: Adapting to higher temperaturesPrinciple 4: Mitigating flood riskPrinciple 5: Mitigating biodiversity lossChecklists for applicants to provide a minimum level of climate change adaptationand mitigation measures, centred around the 5 key principles, are provided withinAppendices 1-3. Detailed guidelines for how to apply the checklists to newdevelopment proposals is provided within Section V8.Case Studies that demonstrate each of the 5 key principles being applied in practicewithin existing developments in the District and County are provided withinSection V7.
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 20205V2. Principle 1: Increasing accessibility - reducing the need to travelby private carPrivate cars contribute towards a large proportion of the UK’s total carbon emissions,with transport being the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Britain. Thishas primarily been caused by an increase in the length of trips taken and a modal shifttowards the car as well as changing land use patterns. There are opportunities for moresustainable transport choices and healthy lifestyles through well planned developmentand providing practical and sustainable alternatives to private car travel is thereforecritical to tackling the climate crisis. A report by the Urban Transport Group ‘Making theConnections on Climate’ (Nov. 2019) highlights the connections that can be made onclimate between transport and energy, and between transport and the decarbonisationand adaptation of the built interventions. This section of the SPD provides details of howinterventions can be achieved in new development within the District.However, Stratford-on-Avon District is an area of relatively small towns and ruralsettlements and this context needs to be borne very much in mind when consideringviable alternatives to the private car and light commercial vehicles.V.2.1 Density and Mixed UseDensity plays an important part in reducing people’s reliance on using a private car.Higher density developments can make destinations easily accessible by walking orcycling and can bring people together to support local public transport, facilities and localservices. Due to Stratford District being rural in nature, an appropriate density shouldbe considered for each new development which will help form the context, accessibility,proposed building types, form and character of the area.Mixed use developments can provide a wide range of services and facilities includingemployment opportunities, schools, healthcare provision, recreational and leisurefacilities, open green spaces and many more. These developments should be encouragedwhere appropriate and provide facilities which are within 10 minutes (800m) walkingdistance of dwellings.Further information on how developments can be designed to incorporate principlesof higher density and mixed uses is available in Part A: Achieving Good Design.Case StudyAn example of how higher densities can be successfully used order to reduce the needto travel by the private car is in the Case Study of the Arden Quarter, Stratfordupon-Avon in Section V7 (Case Study 1)V.2.2 Walkability/PermeabilityNew developments should provide active frontages that are directly accessible by footand overlooked from the street. This can help in reducing crime by providing naturalsurveillance and ensuring streets are community friendly which in turn encourageswalking and social interaction.
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 20206Developments should provide permeable networks as these encourage walking andcycling and make places easy to navigate through especially for visitors. Signage shouldbe provided on all new developments to show the main pedestrian and cycling routes tovillage centres and key facilities and to make it easy for pedestrians and cyclists to findtheir way through new developments. Signage should be clear and include the distanceto key facilities and approximate timings to encourage and promote walking and cycling.Consideration should be given to providing seating/resting places along well used routesto assist less mobile persons to reach key facilities.Case StudyFor an example of how to make developments more pedestrian friendly, please seethe Case Study of Northgate, Warwick in Section V7 (Case Study 2)V.2.3 Integrated Active TravelDevelopment should be directed to areas that minimise the need to travel and maximisethe use of sustainable modes of transport, with walking and cycling actively beingpromoted to and from the development site. All developments should ensure that keyfacilities such as schools, shops, GP surgeries and bus stops are well connected bywalking, cycling or public transport provision.Cycling and walking provision should provide suitable crossing facilities where necessaryas well as appropriate lighting levels and security measures to ensure the safety andsecurity of pedestrians and cyclists. When considering the provision of pedestrian andcycling routes and facilities these should be designed for all users including elderly anddisabled residents.Where there is existing pedestrian/cycling provision, developments should considerwhether it is suitable for its proposed use taking into consideration existing and futurelinks to public transport. These should be improved where appropriate.The National Design Guide (Oct. 2019) identifies ‘movement’ as one of ten characteristicsof well-designed places, and highlights the need for an integrated network for all modesof transport giving people maximum choice in how to make their journeys, prioritizingpedestrians and cyclists.Case StudyAn example of how a residential development can be designed to promote walking,cycling and public transport as realistic modes of travel is in the Meon Vale CaseStudy in Section V7 (Case Study 3)V.2.4 CyclingCycle storage must be provided for each new dwelling at an appropriate level as well ason new employment, leisure, retail and commercial development sites. This should besecured, covered, have good surveillance and be convenient to use. Therefore,consideration should be given to the overall design of cycle storage at an early stage ofthe planning process and full details of this including the location, type of storage,
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 20207spacing, numbers, method of installation and accessibility to the storage should beprovided with the planning application.Cycle storage provision will also be required in householder proposals where additionalbedrooms are proposed, and where sufficient site area is available.Consideration should be given to electric charging points for e-bikes on newdevelopments as well as grouped locations for cycle hire. This would need to beconsidered on a case by case basis as it will be dependent on the size of development.Further guidance on cycling and cycle parking can be found in Part O6: Parking andTravelV.2.5 Planning for the CarPolicy CS.15 of the Core Strategy prioritises development firstly within the Main Town ofStratford-upon-Avon and then concurrently through the remaining locations identified inthe settlement hierarchy. This remains the principle mechanism for addressing ClimateChange in SDC’s planning policy through the delivery of sustainable development andthe promotion of linked trips and reduced reliance on the private car.Car free developments should be considered in locations where the following may apply: Extension, alteration or re-use of an existing building with no access to parking;Reversion of a previously converted property to its original residential use,including flats above shops;Where 100% cycling or walking provision is considered to be a viable option;Highly sustainable locations within a 10 minute walk (800m) of a full range ofservices, facilities and frequent public transport services.Consideration should be given to good design and layout in order to accommodate visitorparking and communal parking. Where there are communal parking areas these shouldbe broken up by planting where possible to improve the design and layout, help toimprove biodiversity and assist with surface water drainage.Developments should aim to create streets that control the speed of vehicles usingappropriate traffic calming measures. For residential streets, one of the main objectivesshould be to achieve a maximum design speed of 20mph.In conjunction with WCC Highways, ‘Idle-free zones’ (defined areas where vehicles arebanned from running engines whilst stationary) outside of sensitive sites such as schools,hospitals and GP surgeries will be strongly encouraged, so as to reduce air pollution andcarbon emissions caused by idling vehicles.Electric Vehicle ChargingAt least one electric vehicle charging point per unit should be provided for residentialdevelopments and for commercial, retail and industrial at least 10% of parking spaces.These may be phased with 5% of initial provision and the remainder being provided atan agreed trigger level.Further information can be found in Part R: Air Quality
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 2020V3.8Principle 2: Improving energy efficiency in buildingsThe UK needs to increase its use of renewable energy for a number of reasons. Theincreasing impact of the climate change emergency means that carbon dioxide emissionsand other greenhouse gases must be reduced. There is also likely to be an increase inglobal demand for energy over the next few decades and this together with a depletionof North Sea oil and gas resource will mean that there will need to be a different approachto sourcing and using energy. By using renewables this will help the UK to recover someof its energy self-sufficiency together with assuring that more imported energy comesfrom reliable sources. An RTPI Research Paper ‘Planning for a Smart Energy Future’ (July2019) sets out the main features of ‘smart development’ that use smart technologies tominimise their carbon emissions.Changes to Part L and Part F of the Building Regulations as part of The Future HomesStandard are currently being consulted on by the Ministry of Housing Communitiesand Local Government (MHCLG). This will require new build homes to be futureproofed with low carbon heating and high levels of energy efficiency, and will beintroduced by 2025. As such, the measures proposed in this SPD accord with thedirection of national policy and building regulations.The Energy HierarchyIf more sustainable buildings are to be built, it is important that energy conservation isconsidered using the energy hierarchy at the beginning of the design process.In order to achieve low carbon development, the energy hierarchy provides the mostpractical and cost effective methodology. Developments should consider how energy usecan be minimised and the order in which these energy saving and ‘green’ energymeasures should be prioritised are set out in the Energy Hierarchy below. The NationalDesign Guide (Oct. 2019) identifies the need for new developments to follow the energyhierarchy in order to conserve natural resources.The Energy Hierarchy
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 20209V.3.1 Reducing the Need for EnergyDevelopments should ensure that they are well designed in order to minimiseoverheating and achieve internal comfort. The following should be considered: Layout and aspect of internal spacesInsulation and thermal massManagement of solar gainNatural ventilationPositioning of windowsOutdoor space for food growing.Passive solar design should be considered as this exploits free heat and light energyprovided by sunlight entering buildings through windows and uses air movement forventilation. In order for this to be effective, the initial design will need to take intoaccount sun orientation and potential shading by landscape design or other buildings.This should be considered at the earliest stage of planning.Public and other open spaces should be well designed and incorporate planting,structures and water for comfort. This will ensure there is shade and shelter for users,improve air quality and help to mitigate the effects of pollution. Deciduous trees can helpto provide shade to buildings and manage solar gain when needed in the summermonths.New developments should use sustainable materials; for example, using recycled orcomposite materials, as well as those that have been locally sourced and thereforereduce the carbon footprint of the development over its lifetime.Proposals for new dwellings and domestic buildings which incorporate renewable energytechnology prior to occupation, in a manner which would be Permitted Development ifthe building or dwelling house had already been lawfully occupied, will be supported.Proposals which incorporate renewable energy technology in new domestic premises ina manner which exceeds Permitted Development thresholds will be assessed on theirmerits against the provisions of the Development Plan.Self-grown food by householders can reduce carbon emissions by reducing food miles aswell as the number of car journeys used to visit supermarkets. Allotments shouldtherefore be provided on new developments. They should not be sited on areas that areprone to waterlogging, flooding, or in areas shaded by buildings and trees. Soil shouldbe of good quality and be suitable for food production. A mains water supply is essential,as well as a shed and a connected water butt.The concept of ‘Edible Planting’ where fruiting trees (such as apple, pear plum etc.),fruiting shrubs (such as raspberry, blackcurrant, gooseberry etc.) and herbs (such asbasil, parsley, sage etc.) are planted for both human harvesting and as an animal foodsource is supported.The production of compost by householders both encourages the growing of food ingardens, and reduces the amount of food waste sent to landfill. It can also produce amore sustainable form of fertilisation when compared to commercially available
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 202010composts, mulches and fertilizers. Developers are encouraged to include compostingfacilities in residential development rear gardens. If this is not suitable, considerationshould be given to providing communal home composting areas on new developments.V.3.2 Using Energy More EfficientlyDwellings and other buildings should ensure that the highest level of insulation aspossible is provided and that lighting is the most energy efficient – for example, by usingLED lightbulbs. Where dwellings include integrated appliances these should be the mostenergy efficient.Building Regulations currently set out minimum standards for energy efficiency in newdevelopments, however it is possible to incorporate energy efficiency measures that gobeyond these minimum standards and the Council would welcome such approaches.V.3.3 Using Renewable EnergyThere are a range of options available to incorporate renewable energy into newdevelopments, and the best solution will depend upon the individual circumstances of aparticular proposal. The main options are set out below.Photovoltaics (PV)Solar Panel systems also known as PV, capture the sun’s energy using photovoltaic cells.The cells do not necessarily need direct sunlight to work as they can still generate someelectricity on cloudy days.The cells convert sunlight into electricity which can be used to run household appliancesand lighting.The installation of PV panels will need to be sensitive to developments in ConservationAreas and relating to Listed Buildings. In such cases, ground-mounted PV panels may bepreferable. Guidance on how Photovoltaics may be installed on historic buildings or withinhistoric sites is available in the following Historic England report: Energy Efficiency andHistoric Buildings: Solar Electric (2017)In order for PV panels to be effective they should be installed on roofs that are as closeto south-facing as possible and not obstructed by buildings and trees.Bishopton, Stratford-on-Avon
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 202011Case StudyFor an example of a development in the District where solar panels have beenintegrated within a small housing development, please see the Hampton Lucy CaseStudy (Case Study 4) in Section V7Solar Water HeatingThese systems or ‘solar thermal’ systems use free heat from the sun to warm updomestic hot water. If solar energy is unavailable or there is a desire to have hotterwater, a back-up conventional boiler or immersion heater can be used.This system works all year around although in winter months, the water may need to beheated further with a back-up boiler or immersion heater. Once the initial installationhas taken place, the hot water costs should be reduced and solar hot water is a green,renewable heating system which can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Solar collectorsare usually installed on roofs, but can also be ground-mounted.Solar Water Heating SystemDistrict HeatingDistrict heating schemes deliver heating and hot water to multiple buildings from a localplant. District heating can use low carbon energy sources, such as renewable energytechnology such as water source or ground source heat pumps. In some cases, it can becombined with electricity production in combined heat and power (CHP) or in combinedcooling, heat and power (CCHP).Further information is available within Part Q: District Heat Networks
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 202012Micro Wind TurbinesThese generate electricity which harnesses the power of wind. Wind turbines catch thewind by using large blades and as the wind blows, the blades are forced round, drivinga turbine which generates electricity.Electricity generation is generally around a few hundred watts which would be enoughto power energy efficient light bulbs on a windy day throughout a typical home.Air Source Heat PumpsThese absorb heat from the outside air which can then be used to heat radiators, underflooring systems or warm air convectors and hot water in the home.Although heat pumps will have some impact on the environment as they requireelectricity, the heat which is extracted from the air is constantly being renewed naturally.If replacing conventional electric heating, fuel bills could be lower. Depending on thetype of fuel that is being replaced the home could see lower carbon emissions.Careful consideration should be given to noise issues that may be associated with thistechnology. To ensure that there are no negative impact on the street scene or characterof the area, design and siting must also be given appropriate consideration.Case StudyFor an example of a development in the District where renewable energy has beenintegrated within housing, please see the Hereburgh Way Case Study (Case Study5) in Section V7Ground Source Heat PumpsGround source heat pumps are used to heat underfloor or warm air heating systems, hotwater and radiators.They use pipes that are buried underground to extract heat from the ground. The groundsource heat pump circulates a mixture of water and antifreeze around a pipe, called aground loop which is buried in the garden. Heat from the ground is absorbed into fluidwhich passes through a heat exchanger and into the heat pump. The benefits of using aheat pump is that as the ground remains at a fairly constant temperature under thesurface, the pump can be used throughout the year.If these replace conventional electric heating, fuel bills could be lower and depending onwhich fuel is being replaced there could be lower home carbon emissions. As well asheating the home it will also heat water and minimal maintenance is required.Water Source Heat PumpsThese work on a similar principle to air source and ground source heat pumps. They takeadvantage of the consistent temperatures found in a body of water rather than takingadvantage of the heat in the air or the ground.
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 202013There will be a series of pipes submerged in a body of water, such as a river, stream orlake. A heat pump pushes working fluid through the network of piping, and the fluidabsorbs the heat from the surrounding water as it goes.The fluid is then compressed by an electric compressor which raises the temperature. Aheat exchanger can be used to remove the heat from the working fluid, providing hotwater that can be used for space heating (radiators or under floor heating).Once the heat is removed from the fluid via the exchanger, it is pumped back throughthe pipes, completing a continuous cycle.Biomass HeatingProposals for Biomass will be considered on a case by case basis and will onlybe appropriate in certain locations, where there are no unacceptableenvironmental or amenity impacts.This is a low-carbon and renewable energy source which burns solid fuels such as wood,chips and logs to provide heating and hot water. A stove burns logs or pellets to heat upa single room and a back boiler to provide water heating as well. The boiler burns logs,pellets and chips and is connected to a hot water system and central heating. A woodfuelled biomass burner can save up to 960 a year compared to an old electric heatingsystem.A typical biomass ormation:
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 202014Micro HydroIn small streams or larger rivers, small or micro hydroelectricity systems or just hydrosystems (also called hydropower systems) can produce enough electricity for lightingand electrical appliances in an average home.All streams and rivers flow downhill and before the water flows downhill it has potentialenergy due to its height. The greater the height and the more water there is that isflowing through the turbine, the more electricity that can be generated.These systems can generate for 24 hours a day, generating all the electricity that youneed and more. Excess heat that is generated can be used to heat up the home and hotwater too.Hydroelectricity is green, renewable energy and doesn’t release harmful carbon dioxideor other pollutants into the air.Thermal StoresThese can be used with individual renewable heating technology or by combiningdifferent renewable heating technologies. They can also be used as a renewablestechnology with a conventional boiler or immersion heater.Thermal stores have been proven to work well with wood-fuelled biomass boilers, heatpumps, wind energy and solar water heating systems.These are good ways of storing and managing renewable heat until it is required.V.3.4 Using Clean and Efficient Fossil FuelsAt least one electric vehicle charging point per unit should be provided for residentialdevelopments and for commercial, retail and industrial on at least 10% of parkingspaces. These may be phased with 5% of initial provision and the remainder beingprovided at an agreed trigger level.Further information on requirements for electric vehicle charging points can be foundin Part R: Air QualityCombined Heat and Power (CHP)This is a technology that is highly efficient, capturing and utilising the heat that is a byproduct of the electricity generation process. As CHP generates heat and powersimultaneously it can reduce carbon emissions by up to 30% when compared to theseparate means of conventional generation via a boiler and power station.DomesticCHP systems are currently powered by LPG or mains gas, however in the future theremay be models powered by oil or bio liquids. This technology is still considered to be ‘lowcarbon’ even though LPG and gas are fossil fuels as it can be more efficient than justburning a fossil fuel for heat and electricity from the national grid.
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 2020Building mentMethodAll non-residential development should achieve as a minimum requirement, aBREEAM ‘good’ standard. BREEAM ratings for buildings range from Acceptable toPass, Good, Very Good, Excellent and Outstanding. Exceptions to this requirementwill be made where it is considered the BREEAM standards are not appropriate orfeasible for the proposed development, on a case by case basis and where theapplicant has provided sufficient justification to demonstrate it is not viable.BREEAM measures sustainable value in a series of categories, ranging from energyto ecology. In order to achieve a particular rating level, the minimum overallpercentage score must be achieved through meeting the minimum standards. Furtherinformation can be found at www.breeam.com.PassivhausPassivhaus is a standard for energy efficiency in a building and can be applied to bothresidential and non-residential development. The Council welcomes Passivhausschemes within the District and further information on the standard can be found at:http://passivhaustrust.org.uk/Case StudyAn example of a Passivhaus scheme in the District is the Wootton Wawen CaseStudy in Section V7 (Case Study 6)
Stratford-on-Avon District Council – January 2020V4.16Principle 3: Adapting to Higher TemperaturesClimate change is anticipated to increase average annual temperatures globally, as wellas the occurrence of extreme temperature events, resulting in a more severe threat ofheat-related mortality. This is expected to disproportionately affect vulnerable groupssuch as the elderly and disabled, which due to the District’s ageing population, will bean increasingly important issue for Stratford-on-Avon to address. As such, futureproofing the design of new homes and commercial developments to adapt to the effectsof higher and more extreme temperatures change is an important component of climatechange adaptation in the District.V.4.1 Shade and Ventilation – The Cooling HierarchyThe cooling hierarchy is an established method of ensuring that developments are cooledin the most sustainable and energy efficient manner possible.New development proposals, including both residential and non-residential proposals,must utilise the cooling hierarchy within the design of new development as set out below.1. Passive design - using energy efficient design to reduce the amount of heatentering the building in the warmer months. This can be achieved throughappropriate orientation, overhangs and shading, albedo, fenestration, insulationand green roofs. Heat can also be reduced within the building
Stratford-on-Avon District Council - January 2020 4 V1. How to Use this SPD - The 5 Principles and Checklists Stratford-on-Avon District Council is committed to tackling climate change, and in July 2019 the Council declared a 'Climate Emergency' as a pledge to take local action to contribute to national carbon neutral targets.