Transcription

DR. MATTHEW ROBERSON, M.D.BioTRUST Nutrition2

THE TOP 10ANTI-AGING SUPERFOODSSimply put, if you’re not dead, you’re aging at the cellular level (a process known as“senescence”), which can affect how you look, feel (i.e., energy levels, feelings of wellbeing), and perform.This process of aging influences the health of every organ and organ system in the bodyincluding the skin, brain and nervous system, heart and cardiovascular system, jointsand muscles, immune system, GI system, endocrine system and hormones, and more,including body fat. Along those lines, cellular senescence is associated with changes inhow fat is stored, with an increase in visceral (i.e., abdominal fat) and ectopic (e.g., liver,kidneys, and heart) storage, which are considered to be more detrimental to health thansubcutaneous fat stores.1It is estimated that by the year 2050 the elderly (aged 65 or older) population willdouble the population of children (aged 0-14) for the first time in history. According toresearchers from Johns Hopkins University, “We face a looming global epidemic asthe world’s population ages.”2In order to alleviate health care costs and increase the quality of living in the agingpopulation, it is crucial to explore methods that may slow or reverse the deleteriouseffects of aging. Fortunately, two of the primary factors that contribute to aging arearguably within in your control, as they can be directly influenced by your lifestylechoices, including the foods you do (or don’t) eat.Excessive oxidative stress and persistent unhealthy levels of inflammation (oftenreferred to as “inflammaging”) directly contribute to and accelerate senescence, orbiological aging.3BioTRUST Nutrition3

In fact, an abundance of scientific data suggests that one of the most important factorsmediating the deleterious effects of aging is oxidative stress, which is defined as “adisturbance in the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (i.e.,free radicals) and antioxidant defenses.”4,5 Oxidative stress has long been thoughtto play a central role in biological aging (i.e., cellular senescence) and the aging ofvarious tissues.6,7Antioxidants slow down the aging process in the body by binding to and neutralizing freeradicals that can damage cellular structures. The body’s antioxidant defense systemis markedly effective at scavenging free radicals, which steal electrons from othermolecules through a process called oxidation.In order to operate at top form, the body’s antioxidant defense system is highlydependent upon a continuous dietary supply of nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich foods.Not surprisingly, researchers have repeatedly found that high fruit and vegetable intakesare positively correlated with antioxidant intake and healthy aging.8Problems arise, however, when the body’s production of free radicals exceeds its abilityto neutralize them as well as when the defense system is running on low-quality fuellike that of Standard American Diet, which is composed of more than 70% processedfoods with a heavy emphasis on refined carbohydrates, simple sugars, and industrialvegetable oils.9These “foods” contribute to oxidative stress (and inflammation) directly and secondarilythrough dietary displacement. In other words, if you’re eating a diet that’s composed of70% processed foods, you’re not eating a diet that’s rich in nutrient- and antioxidantdense foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, fiber, beneficial bacteria).Where there’s oxidative stress there is also typically persistent unhealthy levels ofinflammation, which wreaks havoc throughout the body. In fact, a growing body ofevidence indicates that increases in systemic markers of inflammation are associatedwith age-related declines health. Along these lines, there’s a wealth of observationalBioTRUST Nutrition4

studies in elderly populations consistently indicating an association between higherinflammatory levels and lower cognitive levels and higher risk of cognitive impairmentover time.10Numerous lifestyle and dietary factors seem to influence the body’s inflammatoryresponse, and as you might have guessed, the same contemporary diet that promotesoxidative stress also contributes to chronic inflammation. For instance, diets richin industrial vegetable oils (i.e., high omega-6 fatty acid consumption), refinedcarbohydrates and simple sugars, trans fatty acids, and artificial ingredients—alongwith low intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and beneficialbacteria—contribute to the inflammation “plague” by fanning the inflammatory flames.11Along these lines, experts estimate that throughout human history the optimal ratio forconsumption of omega-6 fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid) to omega-3 fatty acids (e.g.,alpha linolenic acid, DHA, EPA) was about 1:1. With the contemporary diet, this ratiohas shifted dramatically in favor of omega-6 fatty acids to 20:1.12Researchers attribute this imbalanced intake of omega fatty acids to an increase invirtually all inflammation-related conditions including mood disorders, mental illnesses,obesity, and cardiovascular disease.13 What’s more, excess omega-6 intake has alsobeen shown to be associated with shorter telomere lengths and accelerated aging.14,15On the contrary, diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids are associated with a reduced rate oftelomere shortening.16As a normal cellular process, telomere length shortens with age. However, acceleratedtelomere shortening is associated with early onset of many age-related health problems,including coronary heart disease, heart failure, diabetes, increased cancer risk,osteoporosis, and decreased lifespan.17That’s right, despite the fact that we’ve been fed the advice to opt for refined vegetableoils rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the past half century, research nowshows that this advice is misguided, leading to increased rates of death from all causes,BioTRUST Nutrition5

coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease.18While there are multiple explanations for this heavy imbalance of omega fatty acids—including a decrease in omega-3 fatty acid consumption from freshwater fish—researchers attribute this in large part to the ubiquity of refined vegetable oils (e.g.,soybean, safflower, sunflower, and corn oil) present in the Western diet.19 It’s not justthe vegetable oils found rampant in processed foods. Also contributing to the omegaimbalance is the consumption of meat from farm animals raised on oil seeds rich inomega-6 fats (e.g., corn, soy).19,20Inflammatory stress can also result from excess body fat. That’s right, body fat ismuch more than an innate depot for excess energy storage. It is a dynamic tissuethat secretes a large number of hormones and chemicals (e.g., cytokines), many ofwhich have a pro-inflammatory effect and favor an inflammatory environment.21–23 Asa result, obesity is commonly recognized as a state of increased oxidative stress andinflammation, and obesity is directly related to accelerated aging.24 Not surprisingly,waist circumference is also inversely associated with telomere length, providing moreevidence that excess body fat correlates with accelerated aging.14In addition to excess body fat, excess calorie consumption (which is inherentlyassociated with increasing body fat stores) and poor food choices (typical of theStandard American Diet and Western eating habits, which tend to be characterized byhigh amounts of heavily processed and refined carbohydrates and low-quality, refinedoils) also promote both acute and sustained inflammatory stress.25–27As mentioned, this pattern of eating and its associated dietary composition lead toan overproduction of free radicals, which results in oxidative stress and inflammatorystress. On the other hand, diets rich in fruits and vegetables—which are abundant inantioxidants—are inversely associated with inflammatory stress.28While inflammation is an overused “buzzword” with a negative connotation, it shouldbe pointed out that inflammation is the normal, protective, and (usually) temporaryBioTRUST Nutrition6

response of the immune system to pathogens and injury. In other words, a normal,healthy, and acute inflammatory response is not only a good thing, it’s imperative tooptimal human health and function. However, it’s when there’s recurrent stimuli or poorregulation of the system that chronic inflammation—and problems—ensue.Another factor that may accelerate senescence (i.e., the aging process) is the formationof advanced glycation end-products, which are aptly abbreviated as AGEs. AGEsare the result of the addition of carbohydrates to proteins or lipids (i.e., fat), and theycan be formed both inside and outside the body. For instance, AGEs can be formedduring cooking, and they can also be formed by the body after exposure to high levelsof blood sugar, which results from regular consumption of simple sugars and refinedcarbohydrates.29AGEs can wreak havoc on the body’s tissues. For instance, AGEs can impact themechanical properties of cartilage, and as a result, increase joint stiffness, increasejoint fatigue, and inhibit the building of new, healthy joint tissue.30 What’s more, AGEsincrease free radical formation, impair antioxidant defense systems, increase oxidativestress, and promote inflammation.31SKIN: THE MOST VISIBLE INDICATOR OF AGINGThe integumentary system, which is largely comprised of the skin (as well as hair andnails), composes approximately one-sixth of your entire body weight, and while it servesnumerous critical functions, it represents the most visible indicator of aging.32 Skinaging is a complex, biological phenomenon divided into two components: extrinsic andintrinsic aging.33Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors and is more commonly referred to asphotoaging due to the fact that UV exposure is the principal cause of extrinsic aging. Onsites of the skin that are exposed (e.g., face, hands), aging involves changes in cellularbiosynthetic activity that leads to important disorganization in the dermal matrix.34BioTRUST Nutrition7

Extrinsically aged skin is characterized by photo damage as wrinkles, pigmented lesions,patchy hypopigmentations, actinic keratoses, and even pervasive dryness and itching.Important extrinsic and environmental factors that can accelerate skin aging include:sun/UV ray exposure, air pollution, temperature and humidity, smoking, alcohol abuse,certain medications, poor nutrition, repetitive muscle movements (e.g., squinting,frowning), sleeping position, and more.35,36Intrinsic aging, the natural aging process, is genetically determined (e.g., ethnicity,skin pigmentation) and represents an inevitable change attributable to the passage oftime, characterized by physiologic alterations of the skin structure. In human dermis,intrinsic aging is characterized by three features: dermal atrophy due to collagen loss,degeneration in the elastic fiber network, and loss of hydration.37 Various expressionsof intrinsic aging include smooth, thinning skin with exaggerated expression lines.34Hormonal changes, particularly thyroid, testosterone, and estrogen, can impactintrinsic skin aging.38 It is very important to note that one’s intrinsic rate of skin agingcan be dramatically influenced by personal and environmental factors such as thosecited above.36Thus, one’s skin can change in many important ways with age. It can become thinner,begin to sag, and lose its elasticity and smoothness. You may notice this as bagsunderneath your eyes, crow’s feet wrinkles, less definition around your cheekbones,and even sagging skin on your neck. What’s more, pigmented age spots appear onareas of the skin that are overexposed to UV radiation (e.g., face, hands). All of theseunattractive changes are important concerns for many people.The great news is that nutrition can have a potent impact on skin health. In fact, skincan be a direct reflection of the quality (or lack thereof) of one’s dietary make-up.Research has shown that certain micronutrients, polyphenols, and a variety of plantextracts possess potent antioxidant properties and can effectively prolong youthful skinappearance, and among these nutrients include:39BioTRUST Nutrition8

Vitamin C Vitamin E (tocopherols) Carotenoids (e.g., vitamin A, ß-carotene, lycopene, astaxanthin, retinol) Vitamin D Polyphenols found in tea, coffee, and red wine Pre- and probiotics Omega-3 fatty acidsIn one study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchersexamined the association between nutrient intakes and skin aging among 4025 women(40–74 y) using data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES). Skin-aging appearance was defined as having a wrinkled appearance,senile dryness, and skin atrophy. They found that higher intakes of vitamin C andessential fatty acids (e.g., omega-3 fats) were associated with better skin-agingappearances. Interestingly, they found that every 50-gram increase in carbohydrateintake increased the likelihood of wrinkles and skin atrophy.40THE TOP ANTI-AGING SUPERFOODSWith all of that in mind, you might already have an idea of the types of foods thatpossess anti-aging properties.Before we delve into the list of top anti-aging foods, we feel that it’s important to remindyou that, in the grand scheme of things, looking, feeling, and performing your best areall contingent on your entire body of “nutrition work”—not an individual food or singlemeal. In other words, there’s no “magic bullet.” Instead of viewing foods in isolation as“good” or “bad,” think about weight management and “deep health” as the product ofpracticing healthy eating habits, creating a positive food environment, and choosinghigh-quality, nutritious foods in appropriate amounts relative to your goals and activitylevels regularly and consistently over time. Good nutrition takes practice, and just likegetting better and mastering anything in life, it’s about progress—not perfection.BioTRUST Nutrition9

Start where you are and make small changes that you are ready, willing, and able totake on; focus on mastering those new behaviors one step at a time.Also, keep in mind that any food sensitivity—including aversions to otherwise “healthy”foods—could accelerate aging through activation of the immune system and unhealthylevels of inflammation. While not everyone has food sensitivities, there are somecommon offenders, including grains (e.g., wheat), soy, dairy, shellfish, FODMAPcontaining foods, nightshades, and histamine-containing foods.Not everyone has a food sensitivity nor does this mean that everyone needs to avoidthese categories of foods. Rather, this is simply meant to raise awareness that a varietyof foods—even foods that are frequently viewed as healthy—may be an issue for somefolks. While consuming a diet of whole, minimally-processed foods is a huge step inthe right direction, a more personalized approach may be necessary for some people,and that involves identifying and eliminating suspect foods. This is why the arguable tophabit of good nutrition is to practice awareness and mindfulness and figure out whatworks best for you.1. OLIVE OILExtra-virgin olive oil is naturally abundant in a polyphenolcalled oleocanthal, which has been shown to promote ahealthy inflammatory response. Specifically, oleocanthalacts as a “natural anti-inflammatory compound” byinhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes,a property it shares with the highly-recognizable NSAIDibuprofen.41,42“By inhibiting these enzymes, inflammation and theincrease in pain sensitivity associated with them isdampened,” says Dr. Paul Breslin, co-author of a recentBioTRUST Nutrition10

study published in the Journal of Neuroscience in which researchers identified theunique mechanism underlying the oral stinging sensation shared by oleocanthal andibuprofen.43Along those lines, researchers have found that a Mediterranean diet, which is rich inolive oil, confers a number of health benefits, some of which seem to overlap thoseattributed to NSAIDs.44,45In addition to oleocanthal, there are a number of other polyphenols (e.g., oleuropein,hydroxytyrosol) in extra-virgin olive oil that provide antioxidant activity and promote ahealthy inflammatory response.46 In fact, Italian researchers have found that oleuropein,a compound that is similar in structure to oleocanthal, exerts anti-inflammatory effects.47In a study published in the journal Atherosclerosis, researchers examined theantioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of extra-virgin olive oil. Healthy participantswere divided into three groups, each one receiving a meal with a different type of oil:Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO), or corn oil (CO). The researchers foundthat only when the folks consumed meals with EVOO (not OO or CO), they experiencedsignificant decreases in inflammatory markers (e.g., TXB2, LTB4) along with increasesin markers of antioxidant capacity within two hours of the meal.48 While the EVOO andOO had nearly identical fatty acid compositions, the EVOO contained nearly 38 TIMESmore health-promoting polyphenols.In terms of extra-virgin olive oil consumption, the evidence suggests that around 3tablespoons or so may be needed daily to derive the research-backed benefits. Whilethis may come as somewhat of a surprise, it should be noted that Mediterranean dietstypically provide up to 40% of total calorie intake from fats—up 50% of which comesfrom monounsaturated fats (predominantly extra-virgin olive oil).49BioTRUST Nutrition11

2. BERRIES AND CHERRIESCherries, blueberries, strawberries, and other berries gettheir dark, deeply-colored hues from their concentrations ofpotent polyphenols called anthocyanins.50–52 Research hasshown that these potent polyphenols promote a healthyinflammatory response by inhibiting the activity of a classof enzymes in the body called cyclooxygenase (COX)thereby promoting a healthy inflammatory response. TheCOX inhibitory activity of the anthocyanins from cherriesand other berries has been shown to be comparable tothat of commonly-used NSAIDs.53A number of studies have shown that berry consumption has been associated withreduced markers of systemic inflammation. In one study published in the Journal of theAmerican College of Nutrition, researchers from Harvard examined the dietary habitsof nearly 27,000 women as part of the Women’s Health Study. They found that womenwho consumed two or more servings of strawberries per week (about 16 strawberries)were 14% less likely to have elevated levels of CRP, a marker of inflammatory stress.54Strawberries are also an excellent source of vitamin C, which is a key, potentantioxidant, protecting cells throughout the body from free radical damage. Vitamin Calso plays a crucial role in the formation of collagen, which helps keep skin healthy,firm, and tight. In fact, vitamin C has been shown to provide skin anti-aging effects, helprepair damaged, photoaged skin, and provide wrinkle relief.In two separate studies, researchers from the Department of Food Science and Nutritionat Laval University in Quebec found that folks who consumed a low-calorie cranberryjuice cocktail daily for 4 – 12 weeks showed reduced levels of selected pro-inflammatorymarkers.55,56 In one of the studies, the men who drank the cranberry juice cocktail dailyfor 12 weeks demonstrated a 36% reduction in levels of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs), which are enzymes involved in the breakdown of a variety of tissues in theBioTRUST Nutrition12

body and are thought to play a pivotal role in joint degradation.57Researchers from Texas Women’s University recently demonstrated that thepolyphenols in blueberries might play a significant role in reducing body fat, whichsecretes a number of hormones and chemicals that favor an inflammatory state.Specifically, the researchers found that blueberry polyphenols inhibited the formationof fat cells.58 By reducing body fat, one can reduce inflammatory stress as well asdecrease the physical stress on joints associated with extra body weight.Blueberries may also help by fighting free radicals and directly promoting a healthyinflammatory response. In one study published in the journal Applied Physiology,Nutrition, and Metabolism, researchers from Appalachian State University found thatathletes who consumed about 2 cups of blueberries daily for 6 weeks showed reducedlevels of oxidative stress and an increase in anti-inflammatory molecules.59In a study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition,researchers from New Zealand found that consumption of blueberries may alsoaccelerate recovery, soreness, and decrease oxidative stress when combined withexercise. Specifically, folks who consumed a blueberry smoothie before and afterexercise experienced reduced muscle soreness and accelerated recovery of strength,which translates to more frequent exercise and improved performance.60In a study published in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers from the University ofCalifornia-Davis found that men and women who consumed 45 Bing sweet cherriesdaily for 28 days demonstrated significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers.61On average, the participants’ circulating levels of the inflammatory marker CRPdecreased by 25%.Overall, berries contain a number of compounds that support the body’s antioxidantdefense systems, promote a healthy inflammatory response, and support weightmanagement. With that in mind, it’s a good idea to consume a wide variety of berries ona regular basis to support healthy aging.BioTRUST Nutrition13

3. ORGANIC MEAT AND DAIRYFROM GRASS-FED ANIMALSPut simply, it’s all about protein. Meat and dairy areexcellent sources of protein, and while optimizing proteinintake throughout one’s lifetime is key to looking, feeling,and performing one’s best, consuming optimal amountsof protein is absolutely crucial as you age.Unfortunately, as folks age, there tends to be a slow and inevitable age-related declinein skeletal muscle mass, accompanied by a decline in strength, which has tremendousconsequences for mobility and physical function and is associated with a greaterincidence of falls in the aging population. What’s more, the age-related losses in musclemass also contribute to a number of age-related health conditions that can reduceindependence and lessen the quality of life.62Although we will all lose muscle mass as we age—beginning around the age of 40 – 50years old at a rate of about 0.6% per year63—there are a number of factors (within yourcontrol) that can affect the rate of muscle loss. For instance, inactivity or immobilizationcan accelerate the rate at which muscle is lost. In other words, “use it or lose it.”Conversely, resistance training (i.e., weight lifting) is the most potent stimuli for stavingoff age-related losses in muscle mass.64What’s more, nutritional factors can also influence the rate of muscle loss. For instance,older adults tend to consume a suboptimal protein intake, which contributes to agerelated muscle loss.65 On top of that, it appears that, as we age, we have a reducedsensitivity to the effects of dietary protein. In other words, more dietary protein is neededto help build and maintain skeletal muscle mass as we age.66,67 In fact, it may take upto 67% more protein per meal for older adults to stimulate muscle protein synthesis to acomparable level as young adults.BioTRUST Nutrition14

While it’s beyond the scope of this report to delve into protein consumption in the depthit deserves, generally speaking, an abundance of emerging evidence suggests thatconsuming about 0.7 – 0.9 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight per day is optimal.When it comes to choosing beef, your best bet is to invest in the best and highestquality that you are able to fit into your budget. In a recent systemic review and metaanalysis published in the British Journal of Nutrition, a group of researchers criticallyanalyzed data from 67 different studies comparing the composition of organic (i.e.,grass-fed, pasture-raised) and non-organic (i.e., conventional) meat products. Theyfound that the beef from pasture-raised animals contained 47% more omega-3 fattyacids than conventional meat products.68In addition to a much healthier omega-3 fatty acid profile, research also shows thatgrass-fed beef is one of the best dietary sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), asit contains an average of 2 to 3 times more than conventional beef.69 CLA possessesantioxidant activity, and research has shown it to reduce body fat, increase lean bodymass, and improve body composition.70Likewise, when choosing dairy, it’s a good idea to opt for organic. In a recent systemicreview and meta-analysis published in the British Journal of Nutrition, researchersreviewed the results of 170 published studies comparing the nutrient composition oforganic (i.e., grass-fed, pasture-raised) to conventional (i.e., grain/commodity-fed)dairy.71Compared to conventional dairy, the researchers found that dairy from pasture-raisedcows was 56% higher in omega-3 fats (EPA, DHA, DPA), which help promote a healthyinflammatory response. What’s more, organic dairy contained 69% more CLA, which,as mentioned above, has been shown to preferentially modulate body composition,enhance immunity, and promote a healthy inflammatory response.72BioTRUST Nutrition15

4. WILD SALMON AND OTHERCOLD WATER FISHWild salmon and other coldwater fish are abundant inthe essential omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Theyare considered essential because the body cannotproduce them, and they must be consumed throughdietary sources. Unfortunately, the modern foodsupply is largely void of these important healthy fatsdue to overconsumption of vegetable oils, which are rich in omega-6 fatty acids (e.g.,soybean, safflower, sunflower, corn, etc.), meat from feedlot animals (that consumeabundant amounts soy and corn), and reductions in healthful seafood consumption.This is important for a number of reasons, especially when it comes to promotinga healthy inflammatory response. For example, omega-3 fatty acids have antiinflammatory effects (e.g., suppress IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6) whereas omega-6 fattyacids do not.73 In fact, studies show that omega-6 fats promote inflammation, particularlywhen they are consumed in excess of omega-3 fats.11Omega-3 fatty acids get incorporated into the body’s cell membranes, which keepsthem more “fluid.” This ultimately allows for better communication (e.g., hormones,neurotransmitters) and nutrient uptake (e.g., protein synthesis, glycogen synthesis).However, omega-3 fatty acids compete with omega-6 fatty acids (and other fats) for“parking spots” within the cell membrane.74 Thus, increasing omega-3 fatty acids (viaEPA and DHA)—and subsequently decreasing omega-6 fatty acids—tends to promotea healthy inflammatory response and lead to improvements in a variety of healthparameters.In a study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, French researchersassessed the effects of a 10-week diet modification to decrease the ratio of omega-6 toomega-3 fats in healthy subjects on various health parameters, including inflammatoryBioTRUST Nutrition16

markers.75 The researchers found that the diet intervention (i.e., decreased omega-6and increased omega-3 fatty acids) resulted in significant reductions in TNF-α and“multiple favorable effects on the metabolic and inflammatory profiles.”As mentioned above, the modern food supply is rife with industrial vegetable oils rich inpro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids (e.g., soybean, safflower, sunflower, corn, etc.),and an increase in omega-3 fatty acids (e.g., freshwater fish, fish oil supplements) anda concomitant decrease in omega-6 fatty acids appears crucial in promoting a healthyinflammatory response and supporting healthy aging. In fact, excessive consumptionof omega-6 fatty acids coupled with a deficiency of omega-3 fats is connected to adecrease in telomere length (a sign of accelerated aging) and an increase in all agerelated conditions characterized by inflammatory stress.13,76In one study, Australian researchers found that improving the ratio between omega-6and omega-3 fatty acids through EPA and DHA supplementation (i.e., 4 grams total perday) resulted in a substantial decrease in the pro-inflammatory compounds IL-1ß andTNF-α thereby promoting a healthy inflammatory response.77It is important to stress that choosing wild-caught fish tends to be a better choicethan farmed fish. For instance, farmed salmon are typically fed commodities like soyand corn, which have dramatically higher concentrations of omega-6 fats comparedto omega-3 fats, and as a result, the fatty acid profiles of the farmed salmon aresignificantly different than wild-caught salmon, which feed on other omega-3-rich fish(e.g., sardines, anchovies) lower on the food chain.The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats (i.e., more omega-3 fats, fewer omega-6 fats) inwild-caught salmon is upwards of 266% higher than that of farmed salmon, which islower in omega-3 and higher in omega-6 content.78 But that’s not all; farmed salmonalso contain high concentrations of potentially health-damaging contaminants (e.g.,PCBs, dioxins, chlorinated pesticides). PCBs can compromise the integrity of theintestinal lining and disrupt the integrity of the blood-brain barrier.79,80BioTRUST Nutrition17

Even more, exposure to PCBs may negatively influence memory and learning as well asbe an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms.81 Numerous studies have foundconnections between PCBs and multiple adverse human health outcomes includingreproductive, developmental, immunologic, and neurologic effects.80With all of that in mind, you’d be well-advised to consume wild coldwater fish on aregular basis to reap the anti-aging benefits; many experts recommend consuming atleast 4 ounces several times per week. In addition to supplementing with a high-qualityfish oil supplement da

DR. MATTHEW ROBERSON, M.D. 3 THE TOP 10 ANTI-AGING SUPERFOODS Simply put, if you're not dead, you're aging at the cellular level (a process known as "senescence"), which can affect how you look, feel (i.e., energy levels, feelings of well-being), and perform.